In India, land ownership is primarily established through a registered sale deed (a record of the property transaction between the buyer and seller). Other documents used to establish ownership include the record of rights (document with details of the property), property tax receipts, and survey documents. However, these documents are not a government guaranteed title to the property, but only a record of the transfer of property. During such transactions, the onus of checking past ownership records of a property is on the buyer. Therefore, land ownership in India, as determined by such sale deeds, is presumptive in nature, and subject to challenge.
This report analyses the status of Land records across multiple departments, and are in poor condition.
1. Land as an asset
2. Land records are poorly maintained
3. The evolution of land records
4. Need for clear land titles
5. Why are Land Titles in India Unclear?
6. Reforms Undertaken to Improve the System of Land Records
7. Modernisation of Land Records: Cadastral mapping