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Budget and its types
Budget is a statement of estimated receipts and expenditures of the government in respect of every financial year.
Types of budget are:
1. Performance Budgeting
A performance budget reflects the goal/objectives of the organization and spells out performance targets. These targets are sought to be achieved through a strategy. Unit costs are associated with the strategy and allocations are accordingly made for achievement of the objectives. A Performance Budget gives an indication of how the funds spent are expected to give outputs and ultimately the outcomes. However, performance budgeting has a limitation - it is not easy to arrive at standard unit costs especially in social programmes, which require a multi-pronged approach.
2. Zero-based Budgeting
The concept of zero-based budgeting was introduced in the 1970s. As the name suggests, every budgeting cycle starts from scratch. Unlike the earlier systems where only incremental changes were made in the allocation, under zero-based budgeting every activity is evaluated each time a budget is made and only if it is established that the activity is necessary, are funds allocated to it. The basic purpose of ZBB is phasing out of programmes/activities, which do not have relevance anymore. However, because of the efforts involved in preparing a zero-based budget and institutional resistance related to personnel issues, no government ever implemented a full zero-based budget, but in modified forms the basic principles of ZBB are often used.
3. Programme Budgeting and Performance Budgeting
Programme budgeting in the shape of planning, programming and budgeting system (PPBS) was introduced in the US Federal Government in the mid-1960s. Its core themes had much in common with earlier strands of performance budgeting.
Programme budgeting aimed at a system in which expenditure would be planned and controlled by the objective. The basic building block of the system was classification of expenditure into programmes, which meant objective-oriented classification so that programmes with common objectives are considered together.
PPBS went much beyond the core elements of programme budgeting and was much more than the budgeting system. It aimed at an integrated expenditure management system, in which systematic policy and expenditure planning would be developed and closely integrated with the budget.
4. Outcome Budget
The Outcome Budget is a performance measurement tool that helps in better service delivery; decision-making; evaluating programme performance and results; communicating programme goals; and improving programme effectiveness.
It measures the development outcomes of all government programmes. The Outcome Budget, however, will not necessarily include information of targets already achieved.
This method of monitoring flow of funds, implementation of schemes and the actual results of the usage of the money is followed by many countries.