Quantum computing is computing using quantum-mechanical phenomena, such as superposition and entanglement.
A quantum computer is a device that performs quantum computing. They are different from binary digital electronic computers based on transistors. Whereas common digital computing requires that the data be encoded into binary digits (bits), each of which is always in one of two definite states (0 or 1), quantum computation uses quantum bits, which can be in superpositions of states.
How quantum computers work?
• Quantum computers operate according to two key principles of quantum physics: superposition and entanglement.
• Superposition means that each qubit can represent both a 1 and a 0 at the same time. Entanglement means that qubits in a superposition can be correlated with each other; that is, the state of one (whether it is a 1 or a 0) can depend on the state of another.
• Using these two principles, qubits can act as more sophisticated switches, enabling quantum computers to function in ways that allow them to solve difficult problems that are intractable using today’s computers.
• Quantum systems may untangle the complexity of molecular and chemical interactions leading to the discovery of new medicines and materials.
• They may enable ultra-efficient logistics and supply chains, such as optimizing fleet operations for deliveries during the holiday season.
• They may help us find new ways to model financial data and isolate key global risk factors to make better investments.
• They may make facets of artificial intelligence such as machine learning much more powerful.