UNSC established in 1946, is the organ of the UN tasked with the maintenance of security and establishment of Peacekeeping operations.
Inspite of being the most significant body for international peace and security, it has not undergone desirable changes with respect to the changing world order over the seventy years of formation.
Why the reforms?
• As more number of nations being decolonized, there are sharp contrast between the number of seats and the total number of member states.
• Reform is needed to remove the “Democracy Deficit”.
• It has failed to tackle the recent crisis of Syria, Gaza and Ukraine.
• Need to make it efficient, effective, credible and a legitimate body.
The three key areas of reform:
• Equitable Representation
There are 10 non permanent and 5 permanent members. Now various regions e.g. African, Asia Pacific, Latin America etc. need to be accommodated.
• Categories of membership
Member states that have demonstrated credibility and capacity to shoulder the responsibilities of the principal UN organ should have a presence to ensure the legitimacy of the council. Thus a new category of “semi-permanent” seats is intriguing as, if properly structured, could ensure legitimacy without preventing flexibility for a changing world.
• Veto Reforms
The power of veto is frequently cited as a major problem as the P5 members often influence the resolutions making those countries to suffer , which rather need a platform to grow.Proposals include: limiting the use of the veto to vital national security issues; requiring agreement from multiple states before exercising the veto; and abolishing the veto entirely.
Why India should be made member of it?
The long struggle of India to get into the permanent membership, also supported by UK, Russia and France can be justified on following grounds-
• India, being the world’s largest democracy has second largest population in the world.
• It has, since its independence, has become a leading contributor of troops to UN peacekeeping missions.
• Today, India has over 8000 peacekeepers, which is more than twice that of the P5 group.
• On the economic side, India has maintained the state of World’s 7th largest economy.
• Being the 3rd largest active armed force, along with nuclear weapons, India’s candidature is justified.
• ISRO’s successful MOM and of placing of Indigenous as well as four of US’s satellites is another landmark point for its candidature.
• India has consistently supported the purposes and principles of the UN and has made significant contributions to implementing the goals of the UN Charter