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Urbanization/Migration

Urbanization Human Migration

Urbanization

• Urbanization and economic development have a strong positive correlation which is indicated by the fact that a country with a high per capita income is also likely to have a high degree of urbanization. The economic advantages provided by urban areas are many.
• Generally, the industrial, commercial and service sectors tend to concentrate in and around urban areas. These areas provide a larger concentration of material, labour, infrastructure and services related inputs on the one hand and also the market in the form of consumers, on the other. But the situation is different for India.
• Urbanization in India has become an important and irreversible process, and an important determinant of national economic growth and poverty reduction.
• The process of urbanization is characterized by a dramatic increase in the number of large cities, although India may be said to be in the midst of transition from a predominantly rural to a quasi urban society.
In Census of India, 2011 two types of town were identified:
a) Statutory towns: All places with a municipality, corporation, Cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. so declared by state law.
b) Census towns: Places which satisfy following criteria:-
i) A minimum population of 5000;
ii) Atleast 75% of male working population engaged in non agricultural pursuits; and
iii) A density of population of atleast 400 persons per sq km.
• At current rate of growth, urban population in India will reach a staggering total of 575 million by 2030 A.D. According to Census 2011, as many as 52 Cities in India had population of a million plus. Over successive decades, the number of urban areas and towns has increased.

BASIC FEATURE OF URBANIZATION IN INDIA
a) Lopsided urbanization induces growth of class I cities.
b) Urbanization occurs without industrialization and strong economic base.
c) Urbanization is mainly a product of demographic explosion and poverty induced rural – urban migration.
d) Rapid urbanization leads to massive growth of slum followed by misery, poverty, unemployment, exploitation, inequalities, degradation in the quality of urban life.
e) Urbanization occurs not due to urban pull but due to rural push.
f) Poor quality of rural-urban migration leads to poor quality of urbanization.
g) Distress migration initiates urban decay.

ISSUES RELATED TO URBANIZATION IN INDIA
1. Rural Urban Migration
• Migration and urbanization are direct manifestations of the process of economic development in space, particularly in the contemporary phase of globalization.
• A large part of migration and urbanization in India have been linked to:
a) Stagnation and volatility of agriculture.
b) Lack of sectoral diversification within agrarian economy.
c) Low growth rates in agricultural production and income.
d) Unstable and disparate across regions over the past several decades.
e) A low rate of infrastructural investment in public sector in the period of structural adjustment.
• This has led to out-migration from several backward rural areas, most of the migrants being absorbed within urban informal economy.
• But the capacity of the cities and towns to assimilate the migrants by providing employment, access to land, basic amenities etc. are limited.

2. Emergence of Slums
• Due to lack of housing, in every city almost fifty percent population lives in slums. Slums have few characteristics in common:
a) Poor structural quality and durability of housing
b) Insufficient living areas (more than three people sharing a room)
c) Lack of secure tenure
d) Poor access to water
According to the Census data, 1.37 crore households, or 17.4% of urban Indian households lived in a slum in 2011. The new data is difficult to compare with previous years, because the 2011 Census covers all 4,041 statutory towns in India, as compared to 2001 when only statutory towns with population over 20,000 were covered.
Among all million-plus cities, Vishakhapatnam has the highest proportion of slums (44.1% of households). However, Census authorities were treating with skepticism the unexplained spurt in slum populations across cities in Andhra Pradesh.
There are various reasons for creation of slums of which the most important are as follows:
a) Increased urbanization leading to pressure on the available land and infrastructure, especially for the poor.
b) Natural increase in the population of urban poor and migration from rural areas and small towns to larger cities.
c) Inappropriate system of urban planning which does not provide adequate space for the urban poor in the City Master Plans.
d) Sky-rocketing land prices due to increasing demand for land and constraints on supply of land.
e) Absence of programmes of affordable housing for the urban poor in most States.
f) Lack of availability of credit for low income housing.
g) Increasing cost of construction.

3. Urban Transport
• India is transiting from a developing to developed country with high pace of economic development. Urbanization is too increasing at high pace as mega cities, cities and towns are providing better economic opportunities.
• The major objective of urban transport initiative is to provide efficient and affordable public transport.
Urban transport problems

a) Traffic injuries and fatalities
Causes can be poor conditions of roads, burgeoning fleet of motor vehicles, unsafe drinking behavior, overcrowding of buses, autos etc.

b) Environmental pollution
Both noise and air pollution is occurring on a major level.

c) Roadway congestion
The most visible immediate transport problem plaguing Indian cities on a daily basis.

d) Lack of funding
The huge amount of funding required to increase more number of buses, provide improved technology etc is missing.

4. Waste Disposal
• Removing garbage, cleaning drains and unclogging sewers are the main jobs of municipalities and municipal corporations in Indian cities.
• In most cities, the municipal service for the collection and transportation of urban solid wastes comprises three separate functions as follows: sweeping, curbside and domestic waste collection from garbage bins; Transportation by handcarts to large or road collection points, which may be open dumps and Transportation by vehicles to the disposal sites.
The weaknesses of the existing system of solid waste management are:
a) the professional and managerial capacities of the municipal bodies are limited and this is more pronounced in case of smaller cities;
b) no charges are levied for garbage collection or disposal, nor are there any incentives for reducing garbage generation or recycling waste;
c) no separate costing is done for this function;
d) indiscriminate use of plastic bags and goods;
e) recourse to modern technology is rare and;
f) segregation of garbage at the source is not enforced.
• Thus, Indian waste management system is starved of resources to tackle the increasing demands associated with growing urbanisation. Due to budgetary constraints, inadequate equipment and poor planning, house-to-house collection is very rare in India, particularly in certain low-income areas where waste is not collected at all. It is estimated that upto 30-40 per cent of disposed solid wastes are left uncollected.

5. Water Supply, Drainage and Sanitation
• According to the 2011 Census, amenities available with the households has been listed as follows: 87% of households are using tap, tube well, hand pump and covered well as the main source of drinking water while 43.5 percent use tap water. Only 47% of households have source of water within the premises while 36% of households have to fetch water from a source located within 500 m in rural areas/100 m in urban areas and 17% still fetch drinking water from a source located more than 500 m away in rural areas or 100 m in urban area.
• Thus, government has come out with Swatchch Bharat Mission which would attempt to banish open defecation within a decade.
• Further a new technology “Bio-toilets” have been introduced which is suitable for any area/ application in India.

6. Electronic Waste
• E-waste consists of all waste from electronic and electrical appliances which have reached their end- of- life period or are no longer fit for their original intended use and are destined for recovery, recycling or disposal.
• It includes computer and its accessories monitors, printers, keyboards, central processing units; typewriters, mobile phones and chargers, remotes, compact discs, headphones, batteries, LCD/Plasma TVs, air conditioners, refrigerators and other household appliances.
• The main sources of electronic waste in India are the government, public and private (industrial) sectors, which account for almost 70 per cent of total waste generation. The contribution of individual households is relatively small at about 15 per cent; the rest being contributed by manufacturers. Though individual households are not large contributors to waste generated by computers, they consume large quantities of consumer durables and are, therefore, potential creators of waste.
In India E-waste management system in India most of the activities right from the collection, transportation, segregation, dismantling, etc., are done by unorganized sectors manually. Being a rich source of reusable and precious material, E-waste is also a good source of revenue generation for many people in India.
• The big portion (rag pickers) of the Indian population earn their livelihood by collecting and selling the inorganic waste-like plastics, polythene bags, glass bottles, cardboards, paper, other ferrous metals, etc. In absence of the  adequate technologies and equipment, most of the techniques used for the recycling/treatments of E-waste are very raw and dangerous.
• Improper recycling and disposal operations found in different cities of India often involve the open burning of plastic waste, exposure to toxic solders, dumping of acids, and widespread general dumping.

7. Urban Poverty
• Urban poverty is a major challenge before the urban managers and administrators of the present time. Though the anti-poverty strategy comprising of a wide range of poverty alleviation and employment generating programmes has been implemented but results show that the situation is grim. Migration alone accounts for about 40 per cent of the growth in urban population, converting the rural poverty into urban one.
• Thus with the objective of putting in place a uniform criterion to identify the BPL households in urban areas so that objectivity and transparency is ensured in delivery of benefits to the target groups, the Planning Commission constituted an Expert Group under the Chairmanship of Professor S.R. Hashim.

8. Haphazard Growth of Real Estate Sector
• The real estate sector is a critical sector of India economy. It has a huge multiplier effect on the economy and therefore, is a big driver of economic growth. It is the second-largest employment-generating sector after agriculture. Growing at a rate of about 20% per annum and this sector has been contributing about 5-6% to India’s GDP. Not only does it generate a high level of direct employment, but it also stimulates the demand in over 250 ancillary industries such as cement, steel, paint, brick, building materials, consumer durables and so on.
• The Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Bill, 2013 has been introduced to curb the issues related to unsustainable urban real estate sector. It aims to provide a uniform regulatory environment in the real estate sector which is laced with black money, corruption, red tapism, land mafias and corruption.

GOI INITIATIVES RELATED TO URBAN DEVELOPMENT
National Urban Transport Policy.
– The National Urban Transport Policy (NUTP) was formulated in 2006, to integrate land use and transport planning in cities, and to bring about comprehensive improvements in urban infrastructure.
– While urban transport is a State responsibility under the Constitution, there is a need to guide State-level action plans, particularly linked to land use planning, in order for transport plans to best support the key social and economic activities of its resident.
Key objectives:
a) Incorporate urban transport as an important parameter in urban planning
b) Bring about more equitable allocation of road space with people rather than vehicles as the main focus
c) Encourage greater use of public transport and non-motorized modes of transport

Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation and Smart Cities Mission
– The Smart Cities Mission and the Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation of 500 cities (AMRUT) with outlays of Rs. 48,000 crore and Rs. 50,000 crore respectively has been launched by government of India.
– Under the Smart Cities Mission, each selected city would get central assistance of Rs.100 crore per year for five years.
– Smart City aspirants will be selected through a ‘City Challenge Competition’ intended to link financing with the ability of the cities to perform to achieve the mission objectives. Each state will shortlist a certain number of smart city aspirants as per the norms to be indicated and they will prepare smart city proposals for further evaluation for extending Central support.
– This Mission of building 100 smart cities intends to promote adoption of smart solutions for efficient use of available assets, resources and infrastructure with the objective of enhancing the quality of urban life and providing a clean and sustainable environment. Special emphasis will be given to participation of citizens in prioritizing and planning urban interventions.
– It will be implemented through ‘area based’ approach consisting of retrofitting, redevelopment, pan-city initiatives and development of new cities.
– Under smart cities initiative, focus will be on core infrastructure services like: Adequate and clean Water supply, Sanitation and Solid Waste Management, Efficient Urban Mobility and Public Transportation, Affordable housing for the poor, power supply, robust IT connectivity, Governance, especially e-governance and citizen participation, safety and security of citizens, health and education and sustainable urban environment.
– Smart City Action Plans will be implemented by Special Purpose Vehicles(SPV) to be created for each city and state governments will ensure steady stream of resources for SPVs.
– Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) has a wider reach in terms of the number of cities covered and therefore the funds available for each city would be proportionately less. The mission takes a project approach in working towards improving existing basic infrastructure services like extending clean drinking water supply, improving sewerage networks, developing septage management, laying of storm water drains, improving public transport services and creating green public spaces like parks etc, with special focus on creating healthy open spaces for children.

Housing for All by 2022’ Mission
– Around one third of the human population in urban as well as rural areas in the country are deprived of adequate housing facilities. Out of the estimated 200 million families in India, approximately 65 to 70 million families do not have adequate housing facilities. They are not able to procure a house for want of financial resources. The situation of the Scheduled Tribes, Scheduled Castes and the other socially and economically backward class families is worst affected by poor housing conditions.
– Hence government has launched Housing for All Scheme.
Salient Features of the Programme are:
a) Central grant of Rs. one lakh per house, on an average, will be available under the Slum Rehabilitation Programme.
b) A State Government would have flexibility in deploying this slum rehabilitation grant to any slum rehabilitation project taken for development using land as a resource for providing houses to slum dwellers.
c) State Government or their parastatals like Housing Boards can take up project of affordable housing to avail the Central Government grant.
d) The scheme will be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme except the credit linked subsidy component, which will be implemented as a Central Sector Scheme.
e) The Mission also prescribes certain mandatory reforms for easing up the urban land market for housing, to make adequate urban land available for affordable housing. Houses constructed under the mission would be allotted in the name of the female head of the households or in the joint name of the male head of the household and his wife.
f) The scheme will cover the entire urban area consisting of 4041 statutory towns with initial focus on 500 Class I cities and it will be implemented in three phases as follows, viz. Phase-I (April 2015 – March 2017) to cover 100 Cities to be selected from States/UTs as per their willingness; Phase – II (April 2017 – March 2019) to cover additional 200 Cities and Phase- III (April 2019 – March 2022) to cover all other remaining cities. However, there will be flexibility in covering number of cities in various phases.

Migration

• Migration (human) is the movement of people from one place in the world to another for the purpose of taking up permanent or semipermanent residence, usually across a political boundary. An example of “semipermanent residence” would be the seasonal movements of migrant farm laborers. People can either choose to move (“voluntary migration”) or be forced to move (“involuntary migration”).
• Migrations have occurred throughout human history, beginning with the movements of the first human groups from their origins in East Africa to their current location in the world.
• Migration occurs at a variety of scales:
a. Intercontinental (between continents),
b. Intracontinental (between countries on a given continent), and
c. Interregional (within countries).
• One of the most significant migration patterns has been rural to urban migration—the movement of people from the countryside to cities in search of opportunities.

Types of migration
a) Internal Migration: Moving to a new home within a state, country, or continent.
b) External Migration: Moving to a new home in a different state, country, or continent.
c) Emigration: Leaving one country to move to another (e.g., the Pilgrims emigrated from England).
d) Immigration: Moving into a new country (e.g., the Pilgrims immigrated to America).
e) Population Transfer: When a government forces a large group of people out of a region, usually based on ethnicity or religion. This is also known as an involuntary or forced migration.
f) Impelled Migration (also called “reluctant” or “imposed” migration): Individuals are not forced out of their country, but leave because of unfavorable situations such as warfare, political problems, or religious persecution.
g) Step Migration: A series of shorter, less extreme migrations from a person’s place of origin to final destination—such as moving from a farm, to a village, to a town, and finally to a city.
h) Chain Migration: A series of migrations within a family or defined group of people. A chain migration often begins with one family member who sends money to bring other family members to the new location. Chain migration results in migration fields—the clustering of people from a specific region into certain neighborhoods or small towns.
i) Return Migration: The voluntary movements of immigrants back to their place of origin.
This is also known as circular migration.
j) Seasonal Migration: The process of moving for a period of time in response to labor or climate conditions

PULL AND PUSH FACTORS OF MIGRATION
There are a number of reasons why people choose to migrate to another country.
Globalisation has increased the demand for workers from other countries in order to sustain national economies. Known as “economic migrants,” these individuals are generally from impoverished developing countries migrating to obtain sufficient income for survival.This income is usually sent home to family members in the form of remittances and has become an economic staple in a number of developing countries.  People also move or are forced to move as a result of conflict, human rights violations, violence, or to escape persecution.
Another reason people move is to gain access to opportunities and services or to escape extreme weather. This type of movement is usually from rural to urban areas and is known as “internal migration.”  Socio-cultural and geo-historical factors also play a major role. In North Africa, for example, being an immigrant in Europe is considered a sign of social prestige. Moreover, there are many countries which were former European colonies. This means that many have relatives that live legally in Europe, who often constitute an important help for immigrants who have just arrived in a European country. Relatives might help with job research and accommodation. The geographical proximity of Africa to Europe and the long historical ties between Northern and Southern Mediterranean countries also prompt many to migrate.
Push factors are those that force the individual to move voluntarily, are in many cases, they are forced because the individual risk something if they stay. Push factor may include conflict, drought, famine-natural disaster, war, few jobs or extreme religious activity.
Poor economic activity and lack of job opportunities are also strong push factors for migration. Other strong push factors include race and discriminating cultures, political intolerance and persecution of people who question the status quo.
Pull factors are those factors in the destination country that attract the individual or group to leave their home. Those factors are known as place utility, which is the desirability of a place that attracts people. Better economic opportunities, more jobs, and the promise of a better life often pull people into new locations. Sometimes individual haves ideas and perception about places that are not necessarily correct, but are strong pull factors for that individual. As people grow older and retire, many look for places with warm weather, peaceful and comfortable locations to spend their retirement after a lifetime of hard work and savings. Such ideal places are pull factors too.
Very often, people consider and prefer opportunities closer to their location than similar opportunities closer to their location than similar opportunities farther away. In the same vein, people often like t move to places with better cultural, political, climatic and general terrain in closer locations than locations farther away. It is rare to find people move over very long distances to settle in places that they have little knowledge of.

Impacts of migration
Human migration affects population patterns and characteristics, social and cultural patterns and processes, economies, and physical environments. As people move, their cultural traits and ideas diffuse along with them, creating and modifying cultural landscapes.
a) Diffusion: The process through which certain characteristics (e.g., cultural traits, ideas, disease) spread over space and through time.
b) Relocation Diffusion: Ideas, cultural traits, etc. that move with people from one place to another and do not remain in the point of origin.
c) Expansion Diffusion: Ideas, cultural traits, etc., that move with people from one place to another but are not lost at the point of origin, such as language.
d) Cultural markers: Structures or artifacts (e.g., buildings, spiritual places, architectural styles, signs, etc.) that reflect the cultures and histories of those who constructed or occupy them.

Measuring migration
In-migration: people moving into one place from another place within a nation (internal migration).
Out-migration: people moving out of one place to another place within a nation (internal migration).
Gross migration: total number of in-migrants and out-migrants (internal migration).
Net internal migration: the difference between in-migration and out-migration.
Movers from abroad: people coming into a nation from another country or part of the world.
Net migration: the difference between net internal migration and movers from abroad.

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