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Rural education and sustainable development

 
Access to education in rural India remains an issue as every village is not provided with a school which means students have to walk to other villages to attend a school. Besides, many students are not attending school due to poverty, unsocial atmosphere at home and negligence of parents In addition there is shortage of teachers, especially good quality teachers; poor infrastructure also remains a major issue in rural India. Some Government schools lack basic infrastructure in some villages.
 
But education in the rural segments is not only important to eradicate poverty and illiteracy, but also for a variety of other social, economic as well as cultural and political reasons.
 
Hence to understand the different dimensions and benefits of rural education following articles have been taken from Kurukshetra:
 
a) Rural Education - The Way Forward
b) Education For Rural People - A Crucial Factor for Sustainable Development
c) Role of Mid-Day Meal Scheme in Education
d) Sustainable Development: Rural Education Matters
e) Vocationalisation of Education for Sustainable Rural Development
f) An Appraisal of Rural Education
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
Rural Education
Education For Rural People
Role of Mid-Day Meal Scheme in Education
Sustainable Development: Rural Education Matters
Vocationalisation of Education for Sustainable Rural Development
An Appraisal of Rural Education

Rural Credit

 
Agriculture and rural sectors play an important role in India’s overall development strategy in terms of income and employment generation and poverty alleviation
 
The renewed emphasis on agricultural and rural development by the Government of India would lead to a growing demand for different types of financial services in the rural areas. The institutional structure of rural banking consists of several institutions, namely, commercial banks, regional rural banks (RRBs), cooperatives and land development banks. The aim of the rural credit agencies is to dispense adequate credit at cheaper rates.
 
Thus to understand the role of rural credit, its trend and problems following articles have been taken from Kurukshetra:
 
a) Rural Credit - A growth catalyst
b) Progress and Performance of “Kisan Credit Card” for Rural Development
c) Recent Trends And Problems In Micro-Finance
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
 
Rural Credit
Progress and Performance of Kisan Credit Card for Rural Development
Recent Trends And Problems In Micro-Finance

Empowering Rural Women

 

 
Rural women are key agents for achieving the transformational economic, environmental and social changes required for sustainable development. 
 
They play crucial roles ensuring food and nutrition security, eradicating rural poverty and improving the well-being of their families yet continue to face serious challenges as a result of gender-based stereotypes and discrimination that deny them equitable access to opportunities, resources, assets and services.
 
Empowering them is a key not only to the well-being of individuals, families and rural communities, but also to overall economic productivity, given women’s large presence in the agricultural workforce worldwide. 
 
Hence to understand the different dimensions and benefits of empowering rural women, following articles have been chosen from Kurukshetra:
 
a) Government Initiatives to Empower Women-Areas of Concern
b) Empowering Rural Women: A Step Towards Inclusive Growth
c) Where Do Women Stand In Rural India?
d) Women Empowerment and Sustainable Development
e) Empowering Women For Food Security
f) Tools For Women Empowerment and Gender Equality
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
Government Initiatives to Empower Women
Empowering Rural Women
Where Do Women Stand In Rural India
Women Empowerment and Sustainable Development
Empowering Women For Food Security
Tools For Women Empowerment and Gender Equality

Administrative reforms

 

Indian bureaucracy has been formed on the basis of Weberian theory. Weber's ideal-typical bureaucracy is characterized by hierarchical organization, delineated lines of authority in a fixed area of activity, action taken on the basis of and recorded in written rules, bureaucratic officials need expert training, rules are implemented by neutral officials, career advancement depends on technical qualifications judged by organization, not individuals.
 
But there is a rapid increase in the function of the state under an ideological obsession of a welfare concept. With the increase in the activities of the government in the field of economic and social well being of the people, the responsibilities of the government have greatly expanded.
 
This requires changes in the administrative functioning to handle the new welfare responsibilities. Thus following articles have been taken from Yojana to understand the emerging paradigms of Administrative reforms:
 
a) Reforming Public Services: Embracing A New Management Philosophy 
b) Governance: Civil Service & Politician Interface
c) Administering in an Age of Global Regulation
d) Emerging Paradigms of Administrative Reforms
e) A Civil Service for the 21st Century
f) Was Judicial Intervention in Management of Civil Services Required?
g) People Centric Administration

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
 
Reforming Public Services
Governance
Administering in an Age of Global Regulation
Emerging Paradigms of Administrative Reforms
A Civil Service for the 21st Century
Was Judicial Intervention in Management of Civil Services Required
People Centric Administration

Technology, Innovation and Knowledge economy

 

Science and technology have acquired increasing importance in the development of contemporary societies. Governments, firms, universities, and research laboratories all take part in the process of building what has been conceptualized as national and/or regional science and technology systems. The actions of these key players and the interactions between them determine the impact of science and technology activities and, more generally, of innovation strategies on the well-being of nations.
 
As India embarks on its ambitious journey in the new era of globalized and interconnected world, it needs to build an environment where each individual is a source of creativity. 

Hence to understand the importance of technology and innovation in economic growth, the following articles have been taken from ‘Yojana’:
 
• Technological Innovation in Manufacturing SMES: A Decisive Means of Competitiveness
• E-Waste Management by Indigenous Microorganisms
• Innovation and Globalization
• Innovation Revolution: Harnessing India’s Diversity
• Positioning India as an Innovation Driven Economy
• International Lessons on Innovation For Socio Economic Development In India
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
 
 
Technological Innovation in Manufacturing SMES
E-Waste Management by Indigenous Microorganisms
Innovation and Globalization
Innovation Revolution
Positioning India as an Innovation Driven Economy
International Lessons on Innovation For Socio Economic Development In India

Urban planning

 

The world has shifted from rural to urban. Urbanization creates efficiencies by compressing spaces and bringing together the productive forces which helps in the growth process. But population growth puts a drain on cities’ energy supplies, clean water, food systems, and housing hence we need a proper urban planning scenario in India.  
 
Hence we need a careful planning is required if the cities have to become centres of productive enterprise, hub of creativity and spaces of shared abundance.
 
Thus Urban Planning encompasses a vast array of study and expertise. It includes aspects of architecture, civil engineering, real estate, sustainability, conflict-resolution, law, sociology, community development, history, and economics. Urban Planners connect these different fields together and create real tangible structure to solve the most troubling and difficult problems within our cities.
 
Hence to understand the different dimensions related to urban planning in India, the following articles have been taken from ‘Yojana’:
 
• Urban Policies and Programmes in India: Retrospect and Prospect
• Planning for Smart Cities: Where to Start?
• Addressing the rural in Indian Cities
• Urban Planning : The Need for A New Paradigm
• Inclusive Growth through Efficient Urban Planning
• Sustainable Financing for Indian Cities
• A Perspective for Slum Free India
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
Urban Policies and Programmes in India
Planning for Smart Cities
Addressing the rural in Indian Cities
Urban Planning
Inclusive Growth through Efficient Urban Planning
Sustainable Financing for Indian Cities
A Perspective for Slum Free India

Self Help Groups

 
Self-Help Groups are informal associations of people who choose to come together to find ways to improve their living conditions. They help to build Social Capital among the poor, especially women. The most important functions of a Self-Help Groups are (a) to encourage and motivate its members to save, (b) to persuade them to make a collective plan for generation of additional income, and (c) to act as a conduit for formal banking services to reach them. Consequently, Self-Help Groups have emerged as the most effective mechanism for delivery of micro-finance services to the poor.

But SHGs are facing many challenges; hence to understand different dimensions of SHGs following articles has been taken from Kurukshetra:
 
a) Corporate-Shg Linkages For Rural Markets
b) Challenges Before Self Help Groups
c) Micro Credit-The Engine of Inclusive Growth
d) Agriculture-A Swot Analysis
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
 
a) Corporate-Shg Linkages For Rural Markets
b) Challenges Before Self Help Groups
c) Micro Credit-The Engine of Inclusive Growth
d) Agriculture-A Swot Analysis

Empowering Gram Sabha

 
The Gram Sabha (GS) is the cornerstone of the entire scheme of democratic decentralisation in India initiated through the 73rd Amendment to the Constitution. Hence, the success or failure of the Panchayati Raj system largely depends on how powerful and effective the GS is at the decentralised level to fulfil the desires and inspirations of the people. 
 
Article 243(B) of the Constitution defines the GS as a body consisting of persons registered in the electoral rolls relating to a village comprised within the area of the Panchayat at the village level. With regard to its powers and authority, Article 243 (A) of the Constitution says that the GS may exercise such powers and perform such functions of the village level as the Legislature of a State may, by law, provide. It is in the light of this that State legislatures have endowed certain powers to this corporate body relating to the development of the village.
 
The institution of the GS is very important as it gives an opportunity to each and every voter of the GP at the local level to take part in decision-making of decentralised governance, planning and development.
 
Hence to understand the different dimensions related to Gram Sabha, the following articles have been taken from ‘Kurukshetra’:
 
• Empowering Rural Voices of India 
• Grama Sabha - A Milestone For Sustainable Development In Rural India
• Gram Sabha In Fifth Scheduled Areas Precept and Practice 
• Empowering Gram Sabha Through Social Audit
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 

 

Empowering Rural Voices of India
Grama Sabha
Gram Sabha In Fifth Scheduled Areas Precept and Practice
Empowering Gram Sabha Through Social Audit

Rural employment

 

 
A majority of the poor in rural areas of the country depend mainly on the wages they earn through unskilled labour. They are often on threshold levels of subsistence and are vulnerable to the possibility of sinking from transient to chronic poverty, in the event of inadequate labour demand or in the face of unpredictable crises that may be general in nature like natural disaster or personal like ill-health, all of which adversely impact their employment opportunities.
Hence rural employment programmes in India should concentrate on: Increasing Employment Opportunities; Enhancing Wage Earning; and Financial Inclusion of the poor. 
 
To understand the different dimensions related to rural employment and steps needed for enhancing it, following articles have been taken from ‘Kurukshetra’:
 
a) Government initiatives in Rural employment
b) New arenas in Rural Employment
c) Rural Wage Guarantee: Implementation Challenges
d) Plight of Women Domestic Workers in India
e) Strategies for employment generation in rural India-A Critical Evaluation
f) Social Legislation and Social Security
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
 
a) Government initiatives in Rural employment
b) New arenas in Rural Employment
c) Rural Wage Guarantee: Implementation Challenges
d) Plight of Women Domestic Workers in India
e) Strategies for employment generation in rural India
f) Social Legislation and Social Security

Inclusive Growth and Social Change

 

 
Inclusive growth basically means, “Broad based growth, shared growth, and pro-poor growth”.  Rapid pace of growth is unquestionably necessary for substantial poverty reduction, but for this growth to be sustainable in the long run, it should be broad-based across sectors, and inclusive of the large part of the country’s labor force.
 
The Government has launched several initiatives to ensure this by bringing excluded sections of the society into the mainstream and enabling them to reap the benefits of faster economic growth. However with a diverse population of 1.2 billion, the biggest challenge is to take the levels of growth to all sections of the society and to all parts of the country.
 
Hence to understand the different dimensions of the inclusive growth and issues related to it following articles have been taken from ‘Yojana’:
 
a) Financial Inclusion and Social Change
b) Has Indian Growth Been Inclusive? Theoretical Concepts and Evidence
c) Harnessing Digital Technologies for Empowering India
d) MSMEs in the Inclusive Growth Agenda: A Perspective
e) Employment and Inclusive Growth in India: Emerging Pattern and Perspectives
f) Making Agriculture a Tool of Inclusive Growth
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
a) Financial Inclusion and Social Change
b) Has Indian Growth Been Inclusive
c) Harnessing Digital Technologies for Empowering India
d) MSMEs in the Inclusive Growth Agenda
e) Employment and Inclusive Growth in India
f) Making Agriculture a Tool of Inclusive Growth
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