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New vistas in International Relations

 
India's foreign policy seeks to safeguard the country's enlightened self-interest. The primary objective of India's foreign policy is to promote and maintain a peaceful and stable external environment in which the domestic tasks of inclusive economic development and poverty alleviation can progress rapidly and without obstacles. Given the high priority attached by the Government of India to socio-economic development, India has a vital stake in a supportive external environment both in our region and globally. India, therefore, seeks a peaceful periphery and works for good neighbourly relations in its extended neighbourhood.

Hence to understand the different stepping stones in international relations of India the following articles have been taken from ‘Yojana’:
 
a) Indo-US-Partnerships : Evolving Ties
b) India-China Relationship : Transforming Ties
c) Defence as Driver of Foreign Relations
d) Multilateralism in Retreat: Is Regional Cooperation the Way Forward ?
e) Indian Diaspora : Building Confidence
f) Asia : East and South-East

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
 
 
a) Indo-US-Partnerships
b) India-China Relationship
c) Defence as Driver of Foreign Relations
d) Multilateralism in Retreat
e) Indian Diaspora
f) Asia

Tourism: Sunrise Industry

 

 
The travel and tourism industry is responsible for 6.1 percent of India’s Gross Domestic Product, as of 2011. The tourism industry directly and indirectly employs more than 26 million citizens, which represents 5.7 percent of the country’s total employment, according to the World Economic Forum. Additional jobs related to tourism total over 37 million, or 7.5 percent. This revenue directly impacts the economy, especially in sectors such as hospitality, hotels, construction, handicrafts, horticulture and agriculture.
 
Tourism becomes the perfect vehicle for inclusive growth of society and positively contributes to the development and poverty alleviation. Travel industry has the potential to change lives and way of approach to people. The industry however needs to grow carefully and in a sustainable manner without causing destruction to environment and society. Safety, security and positive mind-set of the tourists as well as the host communities’ are significant players in giving a constructive direction to the phenomenon.
 
Hence to understand the different dimensions related to tourism industry in India the following articles have been taken from ‘Yojana’:
 
1. Infrastructure and Tourism Development
2. e-Tourist Visa : Travel Tourism made Easy
3. Role of Tourism in Economic Development
4. Medical Tourism: “Sun Rise Industry ”
5. Ecotourism in India: An Example of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary
6. Educational Tourism in India: Past, Present and Future
7. Impact of Tourism on Environment
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
1. Infrastructure and Tourism Development
2. e-Tourist Visa : Travel Tourism made Easy
3. Role of Tourism in Economic Development
4. Medical Tourism: Sun Rise Industry
5. Ecotourism in India: An Example of Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary
6. Educational Tourism in India: Past, Present and Future
7. Impact of Tourism on Environment

EDUCATION IN INDIA

 

Education is a mechanism to learning. acquiring knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits of not only an individual but of a group of humans. A right to education has been recognized by some governments. At the global level, Article 13 of the United Nations' 1966 International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights recognizes the right of everyone to an education.

 

India has made progress in terms of increasing the primary education attendance rate and expanding literacy to approximately three-quarters of the population in the 7-10 age group, by 2011.India's improved education system is often cited as one of the main contributors to its economic development. Much of the progress, especially in higher education and scientific research, has been credited to various public institutions.

 

Still, the rural India faces a huge burden of illiteracy that has emerged as a challenge. Constitutional provisions and parliamentary provisions are seen to fail in many occasions. There is a need to move much ahead with more efficient implementation.

 

The following articles have been taken from kurukshetra to bring into focus different dimensions of Education in India.

 

• Rural Education – the way forward
• Education for rural people
• Role of Mid day meal scheme in education.
• Sustainable development
• Vocationalisation of Education for Sustainable rural development
• An appraisal of rural education

 

These articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers

 
1. RuraL Education
2. Education for rural people
3. Role of Mid-day Meal scheme
4. Sustainable development
5. Vocationalisation of education for
6. An appraisal of Rural Education

FOOD SECURITY

 Food security is a condition related to the supply of food, and individuals' access to it. Concerns over food security have existed throughout history. The term first originated in 1974, when the World Food Conference defined food security in terms of food supply - assuring the availability and price stability of basic foodstuffs at the international and national level.

 
The definition of food security has been evolving with time. Later definitions added demand and access issues to the definition. The final report of the 1996 World Food Summit states that food security "exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life". 
 
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, or FAO, identified the four pillars of food security as availability, access, utilization, and stability. The United Nations (UN) recognized the Right to food in the Declaration of Human Rights in 1948, and has since noted that it is vital for the enjoyment of all other rights.
 
The National Food Security Act,2013 though controversial to some extent but converts into legal entitlements for existing food security programmes of the Government of India like  Midday Meal Scheme, Integrated scheme and the Public Distribution System. Further, act also recognizes maternity entitlements. 
 
The following articles have been taken from “Kurukshetra” which provide multiple dimensions on food security: 
 
• Food Security vs. Farmer Security
• Hurdles in implementing Food Security Bill
• Food Security – A remedy for malnutrition
• Food Security in India – Issues and concerns
• Making food security work
• Water management and food Security
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers
1. Food Security vs Farmer
2. Hurdles in implementing food
3. Food Security- A Remedy
4. Food security in India
5. Making food security Work
6. Water management and food security

GRAM SABHA AS THE UNIT OF DECENTRALISATION

 Gram sabha is the assembly of all adults of a village or a cluster of villages. Gram Sabha has been envisaged as the foundation of Panchayati Raj system in India. 

 
The institutionation of Gram Sabha can be traced to 73rd Constitution Amendment Act, 1992, which was enacted to reform the Panchayati Raj System in India. The Legislature of Indian States were given powers to determine the powers and composition of Gram Sabha and Gram Panchayats.
 
They play a vital role by electing the right candidates as members or Panchs of Gram Panchayats and keep a check on the activities of Gram Panchayats and influence their decisions for the welfare of the village. Also they conduct various meetings.
 
An empowered Gram Sabha has significant development potential and can play multiple roles to transform subsistence village economy into a vibrant one facilitating village to emerge as an organized unit managing its administration and development affairs. As a powerful institutional mechanism it can keep a close vigilance on the implementation of development programs and virtually eliminate inefficiencies and misuse of development funds.
 
Following articles are included from Kurukshetra, which describe different aspects of Gram Sabha:
 
a) Empowering rural voices of India.
b) Gram Sabha – A milestone for sustainable development in Rural India.
c) Gram Sabha in Fifth Scheduled Areas.
d) Empowering Gram Sabha through Social Audit.
Empowering rural voices of India
Gram Sabha A milestone for sustainable development in Rural India
Gram Sabha in Fifth Scheduled Areas
Empowering Gram Sabha through Social Audit

LAND MANANGEMENT - IMPROVING AGARIAN ECONOMY

 
Land is the integrating component of all livelihoods depending on farm, forest, rangeland, or water habitats. 
 
Planning and management of land resources are integral parts of any rural development programme as well as other development programmes with both rural and urban components. Land use does not consider agricultural uses only but also encompasses natural areas, forests, watercourses and urban areas among others. 
 
But due to varying political, social, and economic factors, the heavy use of natural resources to supply a rapidly growing global population and economy has resulted in the unintended mismanagement and degradation of land and ecosystems.
 
SLM is a knowledge-based procedure that integrates land, water, biodiversity, and environmental management to meet rising food and fiber demands while sustaining livelihoods and the environment. This provides strategic focus to the implementation of sustainable land management components of the World Bank's development strategies. 
 
Following articles have been taken from `Kurukshetra’ to incorporate issues of rural land management in the Indian context.
 
a) Land Use and Agrarian Relations.
b) Land Management can improve rural economy.
c) Land Records Modernisation.
d) Dryland Conservation.
e) Strategy to develop degraded land.
f) Linking rural resources with Development Planning.
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on Land Managementwhich will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 
 

 

Land Use and Agrarian Relations
Land Management can improve rural economy
Land Records Modernisation
Dryland Conservation
Strategy to develop degraded land
Linking rural resources with Development Planning

RURAL CREDIT

 

In terms of All India Rural Credit Survey,“India is essentially Rural India and Rural India is virtually the cultivator, the village handicraftsman and the agricultural labourer.” Rural India, where 70% of all Indians live, still depends heavily on agriculture and it requires continuos flow of investment to keep it alive.

 

Thus rural credit provides the line of credit that helps the rural population in carrying out these financial activities. Some banks and cooperatives extend this type of credit to farmers and others engaged in the agricultural task.

 

The emergence of RRBs has played a significant role in financing the excluded.  S.B.I and other nationalized banks are also playing their part, though some other major tasks are to be completed. 

 

The Government’s policy towards rural credit should ensure provision of sufficient and timely credit at reasonable rates of interest to as large a segment of the rural population as possible. 

 

Thus to elaborate the importance of rural credit, following articles has been selected from Kurukshetra:

 

a) Rural credit: A growth Catalyst
b) Status of agriculture and rural finance in India
c) Progress and Performance of Kisan Credit Card for rural development
d) Recent trends and problems in Micro-finance

 

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on Rural Creditwhich will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 

 

Rural Credit
STATUS OF RURAL AND AGRICULTURAL FINANCE IN INDIA
Progres and Performance of
RECENT TRENDS AND PROBLEMS

UNION BUDGET

Budgeting is the process of estimating the availability of resources and then allocating them to various activities of an organization according to a pre-determined priority.

 

The budget in the Parliament of India gives the estimate for the ensuring financial year. Indian budget contains two things-estimated receipts and expenditures for the year starting from 1st April of the current year to 31st March of next year. It also offers an opportunity to the Government to review and explain its financial and economic policies and programmes to the Legislature for discussion and critical analysis. 

 

The Budget of the Central Government is not merely a statement of receipts and expenditure. Since Independence it has become a significant statement of government policy. The Budget reflects and shapes, and is, in turn, shaped by the country's economy. For a better appreciation of the impact of government receipts and expenditure on the other sectors of the economy, it is necessary to group them in terms of economic magnitudes, for example, how much is set aside for capital formation, how much is spent directly by the Government and how much is transferred by Government to other sectors of the economy by way of grants, loans, etc. 

 

The following Articles have been selected from Yojana Magazine related to Budget 2015-16:

 

• Budget 2015-16: Impact on Growth, Employment and Welfare

• Union Budget 2015-16: A growth-oriented Budget

• Addressing Agricultural Issues: Now, a state Responsibility

• Analyzing Economic Health

• Budget 2015-16: Social Dimension

• Goods and Services Tax: Steps towards Transformational Reform

• Macroeconomic Policy Revival in Mining and Environment Federalism

• Rail Budget: A Bold Path Way for Progress

• Union Budget 2015-16: Education resources & provisions

 

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on Budget 2015-16 which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 

 

1. Budget 2015-16
2. Union Budget 2015-16
Addressing Agricultural Issues
Analysing Economic Health
Budget 2015-16 Social Dimension
Goods and Services Tax Steps towards
Macroeconomic Policy Revival in Mining and
Rail Budget A Bold Path Way for Progress
Union Budget 2015-16-Education

WOMEN EMPOWERMENT

Inequalities between men and women and discrimination against women have been age-old issues all over the world. Thus, women’s quest for equality with man is a universal phenomenon. 

 

The subject of empowerment of women has becoming a burning issue all over the world including India since last few decades. Many agencies of United Nations in their reports have emphasized that gender issue is to be given utmost priority. It is held that women now cannot be asked to wait for any more for equality.

 

Various legislative measures taken by the Indian government in recent years have promoted the empowerment of the women though we have to still struggle heavily to achieve the ideal position.

 

The following Articles have been selected from Yojana Magazine on Issues related to Women empowerment in India:

 

• Amending archaic laws to empower women
• Empowered Women, empowered nation
• Empowering Women in Agriculture
• NCW Twenty Years of Empowering Women
• Stree Shakti
• Women and Panchayati Raj
• Women Self Help Groups

 

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on Issues related to Women empowerment in India which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers. 

Amending archaic laws to empower women
Empowered Women, Empowered Nation
Empowering Women in Agriculture
NCW Twenty Years of Empowering Women
Stree Shakti
Women and Panchayati Raj
Women Self Help Groups

Natural resource management

 
Natural resources are the raw materials supplied by the earth and its processes and include things in the physical environment. These consist of soil, air, water, sunshine, forests, wildlife, fish, fossil fuels, metals and minerals.
 
Natural resources are used to meet basic human needssuch as consumption of food, housing, clothing, heating, transportationand otherrequirements. 
 
Using natural resources to meet human needs and wants has an adverse impact on the environment.For example carbon dioxide, which is produced from deforestation and burning fossil fuels, is a critical greenhouse gas.
Management and judicious use of the natural resources has gained momentum globally in the recent years. Along with laws and policies on national levels, various international covenants and agreements are signed for mitigating the hazards produced and for judicious use of the resources.
 
Here we have selected few articles on Natural resources. It mainly deals with resources as water, land and minerals (coal).
 
The articles are as follows:
• A New Beginning on Water in the 12th Plan
• Implementing the National Land Reform Agenda
• Reforming India’s Land Policy
• Women and land-Why is it important?
• Towards De-Centralization and Inclusion?
 
These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers.
A New Beginning on Water in the 12th Plan
Implementing the National Land Reform Agenda
Women and land-Why is it important
Towards De-Centralization and Inclusion
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