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GS Mains Foundation 2018
GS Mains Foundation 2018
GS Mains Foundation 2018: Complete GS Mains Paper 1, 2, 3, 4 & Essay + GS Mains Test Series (20 Tests) + Ethics Test Series (5 Tests) + Essay Writing (10 Tests). Batch Starts from 6th October in Classroom & Live Online mode. Click Here for More Details & Online Admission.

INFORMAL SECTOR

Informal sector or grey economy includes those economic activities which are not under government surveillance. Informal sector enterprises are owned by individuals or households that are not constituted as separate legal entities independent of their owners. In the Indian context, the enterprises can be of ownership categories of (i) proprietary (ii) partnership (iii) registered under Companies Act as Companies (iv) co-operative societies registered under Societies Registration Act and (v) Government or Public Sector Undertakings.

There is a vast spectrum of activities to be included: from street vendors, shoe shiners to comparatively better activities like small scale manufacturing processes. Though “informal Economy” is an umbrella term, the recent I LO definition excludes criminal economy, domestic work and care activities from it.

It is the savior of the poor and the marginalized : those who are beyond the limit of Government’s welfare schemes and benefits.

The following Articles have been selected from Yojana on Issues related to Informal Sector in India:

a) Concept and nature of Informal Sector
b) Informal Labour in the Information Economy
c) Informal sector: Issues of Work and livelihood
d) The Indian Informal Economy
e) The Informal Sector from a Knowledge Perspective
f) The informal sector: the role of urban commons
g) Urban Informal Sector in India

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on Informal Sector in India which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers.

concept and nature of Informal Sector
Informal Labour in the Information Economy
Informal sector Issues of Work and livelihood
The Indian Informal Economy
The Informal Sector from a Knowledge Perspective
The informal sector the role of urban commons
Urban Informal Sector in India

Good Governance

Etymologically and semantically, words like 'governance' and 'good governance' seem to belong to the same genus as very ancient terms like 'state' and 'government'. But good governance concept gained currency only in the last two to three decades as a descriptive label for some parts of the policy packages associated with the 'conditionalities' of donor agencies viz. IBRD, IMF, WB who have lent loans for development works etc. in the Third World.

The core values that go into the making of good governance are participatory decision-making, accountability and transparency, efficient and responsive structure underlying the political system and equity which involves fairness and rule of law. A society striving to achieve the ideals of good governance needs to work on these values to ensure that people get their rightful share in the fruits of development of the country. A number of initiatives have been taken in this direction which is having a significant impact on the lives of people and their relationship with the structures of governance.

The following Articles have been selected from Yojana Magazine on Good Governance:

a) The Challenge Of Good Governance In India: Need For Innovative Approaches
b) Governance And Development
c) Governance And Public Policy: Vertical Meeting Horizontal
d) E-Governance: Need For A Bottom-Up Approach
e) Rural E-Governance In India
f) Corruption, Participatory Development And Good Governance
g) Initiatives And Challenges Of Good Governance In India
h) RTI—A Right To Good Governance

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions related to Good Governance which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers.

1. The Challenge of Good Governance in
2. Governance and Development
3. Governance and Public Policy Vertical
4. e-Governance Need for a
5. Rural E-Governance in India
6. Corruption, Participatory Development
7. Initiatives and Challenges of Good
8. RTI-A Right to Good Governance

Federalism and Indian Polity

Federalism is a system of government in which the same territory is controlled by two levels of government. Generally, an overarching national government governs issues that affect the entire country, and smaller subdivisions govern issues of local concern. Both the national government and the smaller political subdivisions have the power to make laws and both have a certain level of autonomy from each other.

The Constitution provides a federal system of government in the country even though it describes India as ‘a Union of States’. The term implies that firstly, the Indian federation is not the result of an agreement between independent units, and secondly, the units of Indian federation cannot leave the federation.

The following Articles have been selected from Yojana related to Federalism in India:

1. Fiscal Federalism, Local Governments
2. Why Federalism? A Perspective
3. Foundations And Development Of Indian Federalism: Lessons Learnt And Unlearnt
4. Niti Aayog And Indian Fiscal Federalism
5. Cooperative Federalism In India: Contests And Contradictions
6. Federalism In India: Political And Fiscal

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on Federalism and Indian Polity and its impact on India which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers.

1. Fiscal Federalism, Local Governments
2. Why Federalism A Perspective
3. Foundations and Development of Indian
4. NITI Aayog and Indian Fiscal Federalism
5. Cooperative Federalism In India
6. Federalism in India

Inclusive democracy

The term “Democracy”, derived from classical Greek, means” rule by people”; ‘demos’ means people, ‘xratos’ means rule.

Democracy is the outcome of historical struggles against tyrannies of autocratic rulers or oligarchy. In a democracy, all eligible people of the state govern themselves wither directly or indirectly.

Thus, Democratic institutions are the societal arrangements for carrying out the democratic rule. For ex, free and fair elections are necessary to legitimize our rulers. Similarly, rule of law, political and civil rights, freedom of speech etc. are the building blocks of a true democracy.

The concept inclusive democracy is linked to ‘swaraj’ which is the result of Gandhiji’s synthesis of ‘inclusive democracy’, after Gandhiji negated the utilitarian principle of ‘greats good of the greatest number of people. He realized that true happiness comes only when the person at the lowest rung is made happy.

Hence following articles have been selected from Yojana Magazine to describe different forms of democracy & democratic institutions:

• Towards Holistic Panchayat Raj
• Equality and its demands on democratic Institutions
• Secularism and inclusive society
• Challenges of the Marginalised
• Peoples, Voices, Development and Democracy
• Disadvantaged Sections Processes of Continuity and Change
• Poverty Promises Made and Miles to Go
• Political Empowerment of Women
• Inclusion of the Transgenders in Democracy

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions related to Inclusive democracy which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers.

1. Towards Holistic Panchayat Raj
2. Equality and its demands on democratic Institutions
3. Secularism and inclusive society
4. challenges of the Marginalised
5. Peoples, Voices, Development and Democracy
6. Disadvantaged Sections Processes of Continuity and Change
7. Poverty Promises Made and Miles to Go
8. Political Empowerment of Women
9. Inclusion of the Transgenders in Democracy

Climate change and impact on India

Climate change is a global environmental problem which has been receiving intense political attention both at domestic and international levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) defines ‘climate change’ as a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods. The major characteristics of climate change include rise in average global temperature, ice cap melting, changes in precipitation, and increase in ocean temperature leading to sea level rise.

The change in the climate system is likely to have adverse impact on the economy, livelihoods, cropping pattern, and food security. According to the various projections by the IPCC, extreme heat events are likely to be longer and more intense in addition to changes in precipitation patterns. The change in climate could affect the production of wheat, rice, and maize in the tropical and temperate zones; have negative impact on health by exacerbating health problems that already exist especially in developing countries; and adversely impact productive activities like growing food and working outdoors.

Thus India is highly prone to the climate change impact.

The following Articles have been selected from Yojana related to Climate Change and its impact on India:

• Facing The Challenge
• What India Needs to Do
• Indian Environmental Law and Climate Change
• Impact of Climate Change on Human Health in India
• Climate Change and Indigenous Knowledge
•Coping with Climate Change

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on Climate Change and its impact on India which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers.

1. Facing The Challenge
2. What India Needs to Do
3. Indian Environmental Law and Climate change
4. Impact of Climate Change on Human
5. Climate Change and Indigenous
6. Coping with Climate Change

Alternative health

Health is the most important aspect for any individual. For a nation, the health of its citizens plays a crucial role in the socio economic development of the country.  There are different facets of health issues in India: malnutrition in children, infant mortality, sanitation related, unsafe drinking water, female health concerns, environmental health hazards etc.

The healthcare facilities in India comprise of both public as well as private though the later is better flourished in the urban areas specially. But half of residents of rural areas live below the poverty line. Health issues confronted by rural people are many and diverse. Thus spending huge amount of money, travelling long distances to cities for treatment, etc. often keep these people struggling with the problems for a longer period of time.

Here comes alternative medicine to the front play, helping the people to help themselves getting cured.

The following articles taken from ‘Yojna’ cover the areas of alternative medicine and its various advantages.
• Yoga: right path to health and wellness.
• Emergence and growth of Ayurveda.
• Homeopathy: the gentle medicine.
• Unani medicine: the art of health and healing.
• Naturopathy and India’s health care challenges.
• The Siddha system of medicine

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions on the topic which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers.

Yoga Right Path to Health and Wellness
Emergence and Growth of Ayurveda
Homoeopathy The Gentle Medicine
UNANI Medicine
Naturopathy and India Health care challenges
The Siddha System of Medicine

Manufacturing in India

Despite India’s early development strategy of creating a well diversified industrial base through extensive reforms focused on manufacturing, an acceleration of manufacturing growth and the desired dynamism has remained elusive. The sector has not lived up to its expected potential as evident from its stagnant share of 15% to 16% in overall GDP since the 1980s.

Further, countries with similar levels of development, especially the East Asian economies, have been able to make their presence felt in the global market for manufacturing products to a far greater extent than Indian While China in particular has achieved rapid growth fuelled by its manufacturing base, India has not witnessed a similar scaling-up of its manufacturing capabilities, although over the years, the share of services has risen and agriculture has declined as a percentage of overall GDP.

The recent budget of the Government has made efforts to provide favourable environment and facilities to promote domestic as well as international industry by simplification, rationalization and digitization of processes. Initiatives like “Make in India”, Skill India, MUDRA etc are aimed at encouraging the spirit of entrepreneurship and making India the manufacturing hub of the world. The budget also tries to address issues relating to lack of robust infrastructure, constraints on energy supply, importance of innovation and technology etc.
The following Articles have been selected from Yojana Magazine:
• Manufacturing In India: New Perspectives And Imperatives
• Manufacturing-Led Growth, Competition And Challenges
• Need For Sustainability And Innovations In Indian Manufacturing
• The Need For ‘Make In India’
• Labour Laws And India’s Manufacturing Sector: The Need For Reforms
• Hi-Tech Manufacturing In India: An Unleashed Potential
• Intellectual Property Issues In Fast Moving Consumer Goods (FMCGS) In India

These Articles will provide a complete gist of the different dimensions related to Manufacturing Sector in India which will prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers.
 

1. Manufacturing in India
2. Manufacturing-Led Growth, Competition and
3. Need for Sustainability and Innovations
4. The Need For 'Make In India'
5. Labour Laws and Indias Manufacturing Sector
6. Hi-Tech Manufacturing in India
7. Intellectual Property Issues in Fast Moving
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