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Geography GS Paper I by Prince Mishra

  • Category
    GS-I
  • Published
    2021-10-04 10:34:00
  • Evaluated
    Yes

Instruction:

  • Attempt One question out of the given two.
  • The test carries 15 marks.
  • Write Your answer in 150 words.
  • Any page left blank in the answer-book must be crossed out clearly.
  • After Writing the Answer upload your copy in JPEG format in the comment box.
  • Evaluated Copy will be re-uploaded on the same thread after 2 days of uploading the copy.
  • Discussion of the question and one to one answer improvement session of evaluated copies will be conducted through Google Meet with concerned faculty. You will be informed via mail or SMS for the discussion.

Question #1. “Adopting “climate-smart” agricultural practices would be key to eradicate hunger from the world”, in the light of the above statement explain the meaning and the role of climate smart agriculture in future food and environmental sufficiency.

Question #2. Despite being an efficient and cheap means of transport, railway has consistently lost its share of freight to road transport. Enumerate the reasons for the same. How far can the high speed freight corridor help in addressing this issue? 

(Examiner will pay special attention to the candidate's grasp of his/her material, its relevance to the subject chosen, and to his/ her ability to think constructively and to present his/her ideas concisely, logically and effectively).

Model Answer

Question #1. “Adopting “climate-smart” agricultural practices would be key to eradicate hunger from the world”, in the light of the above statement explain the meaning and the role of climate smart agriculture in future food and environmental sufficiency.

Hints

According to FAO climate smart agriculture practices could address the twin problems of food security and climate change.

Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach that helps to guide actions needed to transform and reorient agricultural systems to effectively support development and ensure food security in a changing climate. CSA aims to tackle three main objectives:

  1. Sustainably increasing agricultural productivity and incomes
  2. Adapting and building resilience to climate change
  3. Reducing and/or removing greenhouse gas emissions, where possible.

Despite the attention paid to agricultural development and food security over the past decades, there are still about 800 million undernourished and 1 billion malnourished people in the world. At the same time, more than 1.4 billion adults are overweight and one third of all food produced is wasted. According to UN, before 2050, the global population is expected to swell to more than 9.7 billion people. At the same time, global food consumption trends are changing drastically, for example, increasing affluence is driving demand for meat-rich diets. If the current trends in consumption patterns and food waste continue, it is estimated we will require 60% more food production by 2050. CSA helps to improve food security for the poor and marginalized groups while also reducing food waste globally.

Agriculture continues to be the main source of food, employment and income for many people living in developing countries. Indeed, it is estimated that about 75% of the world’s poor live in rural areas, with agriculture being their most important income source. As such, agriculture is uniquely placed to propel people out of poverty. Agricultural growth is often the most effective and equitable strategy for both reducing poverty and increasing food security.

Climate change is already increasing average temperatures around the globe and, in the future, temperatures are projected to be not only hotter but more volatile too. This, in turn, will alter how much precipitation falls, where and when. Combined, these changes will increase the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as hurricanes, floods, heat waves, snowstorms and droughts. They may cause sea level rise and salinization, as well as perturbations across entire ecosystems. All of these changes will have profound impacts on agriculture, forestry and fisheries.

The agriculture sector is particularly vulnerable to climate change because different crops and animals thrive in different conditions. This makes agriculture highly dependent on consistent temperature ranges and water availability, which are exactly what climate change threatens to undermine. In addition, plant pests and diseases will likely increase in incidence and spread into new territories bringing further challenges for agricultural productivity.

Conclusion

The climate smart agriculture aims to bring sustainable methods of agriculture practices such as organic farming, precision farming etc. which will help in increasing overall productivity in the future while maintaining environmental sanctity

Question #2. Despite being an efficient and cheap means of transport, railway has consistently lost its share of freight to road transport. Enumerate the reasons for the same. How far can the high speed freight corridor help in addressing this issue?

Hints

Freight transport is for transportation of goods, vegetables, machineries, minerals etc. Railway had benefits like

  1. least affected by weather
  2. better organized than any other form of transport
  3. service is more certain, uniform and regular
  4. Its speed over long distances is more
  5. Railway transport is economical, quicker
  6. cheaper mode of transport

Still it is losing its share to road transport because

  1. It requires large investment capital and cost of maintenance is also very high.
  2. Routes and timings are inflexible and thus can’t be adjusted to the individual requirement.
  3. Rail transport cannot provide door to door service as it is tied to a particular track.
  4. As railways require huge capital outlay, they may give rise to monopolies and work against public interest at large. Even if controlled and managed by the government, lack of competition may breed inefficiency and high costs.
  5. It is unsuitable and uneconomical for short distance and small traffic of goods.
  6. Because of huge capital requirements and traffic, railways cannot be operated economically in rural areas.
  7. Cross subsidization in railways by increasing freight fares for lower passenger fares, has made it unviable.
  8. Railways are restricted in the hilly areas of north east and Ladakh
  9. Poor hinterland linkages in Chhotanagpur plateau
  10. Poor linkages with ports leads to poor evacuation efficiency
  11. Road highways have been six laned, creation of expressways etc has acted as pull factors
  12. Lack of seamless connectivity across various rail gauges
  13. Other railway issues like railway accidents, need of larger land acquisition, labour union strikes etc has also hampered (increased operational cost) High Speed Freight corridors

 

  1. Western freight corridor from JNPT to Dadri
  2. Eastern corridor from Dunkuni to Ludhiana
  3. Span 1800km and 1500km respectively
  4. Will increase evacuation efficiencies
  5. Connect major cities, smart cities leading to hinterland connectivities
  6. Decrease travel time
  7. Will save perishable products etc.
  8. Would make railway freight cost effective, efficient and hence help to increase its share but other challenges also need to be countered.

Note: You have to write your answers on an A4 size sheet leaving margins on both sides based on UPSC pattern. Mention Your Name on 1st page and Page Number on each page. After writing the answer, Click pictures of each page of the answer sheet and upload them altogether (in JPG/JPEG/PNG format) in the comment section of the same question.

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