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Disaster Management Paper III BY Prince Mishra

  • Category
    GS -III
  • Published
    2021-09-22 10:48:00
  • Evaluated


  • Attempt One question out of the given two.
  • The test carries 15 marks.
  • Write Your answer in 150 words.
  • Any page left blank in the answer-book must be crossed out clearly.
  • After Writing the Essay upload your copy in JPEG format in the comment box.
  • Evaluated Copy will be re-uploaded on the same thread after 2 days of uploading the copy.
  • Discussion of the question and one to one answer improvement session of evaluated copies will be conducted through Google Meet with concerned faculty. You will be informed via mail or SMS for the discussion.

Question #1. “Owing to increased frequencies of cyclones in coastal regions, India must make disaster resilient infrastructure mandatory in coastal regions of the country”. Elucidate.

Question #2. Highlight the flood vulnerability in India? Discuss the availability and efficacy of Institutional arrangements over flood management in India

(Examiner will pay special attention to the candidate's grasp of his/her material, its relevance to the subject chosen, and to his/ her ability to think constructively and to present his/her ideas concisely, logically and effectively).

Model Answer

Question #1. “Owing to increased frequencies of cyclones in coastal regions, India must make disaster resilient infrastructure mandatory in coastal regions of the country”. Elucidate.

Global warming has triggered cascading impact on nature of natural disaster. On the one hand, frequency of natural disasters has multiplied while on the other sea level rise has been observed.

Further, problems such as intrusion of salt water and loss of land have disturbed the socio-economic conditions of the coastal regions of the country. This needs an effective effort to contain the impact of natural disasters such as cyclone and Tsunami. There is a need of more disaster resilient efforts and infrastructure development in coastal regions of the country.

Need of disaster resilient infrastructure development in coastal regions

  1. Cyclone Shelters
    • Cyclone shelters are those infrastructures which are developed along with coasts which are useful in minimizing the loss of human lives during the event of a cyclone.
    • In those coastal regions which are densely populated and evacuation is not possible, cyclone shelters are built to save human lives.
    • The buildings are designed in such a way that they provide a blank facade with minimum number of apertures in direction of prevailing winds.
    • Government should direct to design all the government buildings in such a way that can be used as cyclone shelters.
  1. Green belt plantation
    • Plantation of green belts or shelter belts along the sea coast with a high density of trees can reduce the intensity of cyclones and Tsunamis.
    • Government must make mandatory for every public building in the coastal regions to have green plantation in front of it.
    • This will save that building from the impacts of natural disasters.
  1. Engineered structure
    • Government must discover innovative engineering solutions from and across the globe in order to withstand with the impacts of natural disaster.
    • The structures which are built in coastal regions must withstand the impacts of high winds and pressure of volume of water in case of cyclone and Tsunami.
    • Water resistant buildings are ideal for the coastal regions as infrastructures along the coast continuously face the vagaries of moisture laden winds. Rising sea level is another major problem which must be tackled in coastal regions.

Elevated housing projects are seen as an alternative solution to fight sea level rise. This will help to decisively fight against menace of rising sea level and submergence of coastal regions in the near future. This will also fulfil India’s commitment to adhere to Sendai Framework for disaster Risk reduction which recognizes state’s primary role to reduce disaster risk. It will also fulfil India’s commitment to achieve Sustainable Development Goal 13 pertaining to Climate Action.

Question #2. Highlight the flood vulnerability in India? Discuss the availability and efficacy of Institutional arrangements over flood management in India.

India is highly vulnerable to floods. Out of the total geographical area of 329 million hectares (mha), more than 40 mha is flood prone. Floods are a recurrent phenomenon, which cause huge loss of lives and damage to livelihood systems, property, infrastructure and public utilities. Eighty per cent of the precipitation takes place in the monsoon months from June to September. The rivers a bring heavy sediment load from catchments. These, coupled with inadequate carrying capacity of rivers are responsible for causing floods, drainage congestion and erosion of river-banks.

Cyclones, cyclonic circulations and cloud bursts cause flash floods and lead to huge losses. It is a fact that some of the rivers causing damage in India originate in neighboring countries; adding another complex dimension to the problem.

On average every year, 75 lakh hectares of land is affected, 1600 lives are lost and the damage caused to crops, houses and public utilities is Rs.1805 crores due to floods. The maximum number of lives (11,316) was lost in the year 1977. The frequency of major floods is more than once in five years.

Institutional arrangements dealing with flood management

  • As per the constitutional provisions, FM is a state subject and as such the primary responsibility for flood management lies with the states. The central government has taken various initiatives and set up a number of organizations dealing with the floods. The most notable one is the enactment of the National Disaster Management Act, December 2005 and setting up of the NDMA, which has been assigned to deal with all types of disasters including the floods which include:

– Inspections of dams, embankments and other structural measures by the state governments

– twice every year, once before monsoon (April-May) and second time after monsoon (November December).

– Restoration/strengthening works by the state governments–every year.

– Monitoring of structural measures–by the state governments–throughout the year with special attention during monsoon.

– Expansion and modernization of flood forecasting and warning network.

Efficacy of Institutional arrangements dealing with flood management

  • While the institutional mechanisms have been in operation for a long time, the intensity and frequency of floods have only increased. There is a shortage of manpower, funds and missing of clear work hierarchy in the institutions that deal with flood management.
  • Moreover, Climate change and rising population is impacting the natural drainage system and the water cycle. Wetlands are being converted into habitable zones, thus reducing recharge potential of the ground water. The flow of surface water is blocked due to encroachments in river beds.
  • Hence, while all the activities under the Guidelines are important for minimizing flood risk and loss of lives and properties, the issues which need special attention are the following:
  • Indiscriminate encroachment of the flood plains of the rivers and waterways of natural and manmade drainage channels and reclamation of ponds, chaurs, lakes and depressions have led to increased flood risk to lives and properties. The regulation of developmental activities in these areas must be rational.
  • The change in priority in use of storage space of the multi-purpose reservoirs for irrigation, hydropower, drinking and industrial water supply by ignoring flood moderation has led to large scale flooding. The operation manuals and rule curves of all the reservoirs will be reviewed and modified to give priority to flood moderation.

Note: You have to write your answers on an A4 size sheet leaving margins on both sides based on UPSC pattern. Mention Your Name on 1st page and Page Number on each page. After writing the answer, Click pictures of each page of the answer sheet and upload them altogether (in JPG/JPEG/PNG format) in the comment section of the same question.

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