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Public Administration Optional by Ashutosh Pandey


  • Attempt One question out of the given two.
  • The test carries 15 marks.
  • Write Your answer in 150 words.
  • Any page left blank in the answer-book must be crossed out clearly.
  • After Writing the Answer upload your copy in JPEG format in the comment box.
  • Evaluated Copy will be re-uploaded on the same thread after 2 days of uploading the copy.
  • Discussion of the question and one to one answer improvement session of evaluated copies will be conducted through Google Meet with concerned faculty. You will be informed via mail or SMS for the discussion.

Question #1. Ecology shapes Administration and every country needs a unique ecological administrative system to be effective. Explain. (Riggs) (150 words)   

Question #2. The legislative control over administration is more theoretical than practical. Comment (150 words)
(Examiner will pay special attention to the candidate's grasp of his/her material, its relevance to the subject chosen, and to his/ her ability to think constructively and to present his/her ideas concisely, logically and effectively).

Model Answer

Question #1. Ecology shapes Administration and every country needs a unique ecological administrative system to be effective. Explain. (Riggs) (150 words)


  • Here the question demands the linkages between Ecology and Administration.
  • It emphasises on ecology and countries. Hence use Riggs and his analysis based on developing countries.
  • Explain them with example how one shapes another and vice versa.


Ecology in simple words relates to ‘Environment’. And this environment includes physical, social and cultural aspects. So, basically we are going to talk about the relationship between administration and the environment it is set in (internal as well as external) and how the affect each other.

Environment is the largest system, the rest and others like political systems, administrative systems, etc are all sub systems who work under it. It influences its sub systems and vice versa. They both have to adjust to each other and also reform and change each other from time to time to stay up to date where the people’s wishes drive the policies and the policies bring in development that uplifts the socio-economic status and level of the environment for progress. So they are interdependent and not mutually exclusive of each other.

How does ecology shape administration?

Administration is seen as one of the most significant aspect of any societal arrangement as it makes possible the achievement of governmental function fulfilment. It has been observed that administration of any state happens to be an expression of various unique factors existing in society and is inter dependant over other arrangements in the society that provides the stability of all structure in a society. Various scholars like George Orwell in their writings like ‘Shooting an Elephant’ books have given case studies of how they have seen practically that the administrative systems in different parts of the world perform differently in order to suit the environment or ecology they are set in.

The ecological approach to Public Administration was first propagated popularly by Fred W. Riggs who studied administrative systems in different countries (emphasis on developing countries) and why there was a vast amount of disconnect among them while applying the Americanised theories of Public Administration and how they coped up. He found that the main reason for this uniqueness of administrative systems in the world is the environment that they are set in. Each country had a different environment setting and that played a major role in the shaping of the administrative system because without the help and approval of its people an administrative system cannot survive and thus it acts according to its environment and in turn it also influences the society with its work and procedures.

Max Weber projected an ideal system of bureaucracy where bureaucracy was shown as a closed system unaffected by the environment. A system which Weber assumed would be applicable and successful in all countries irrespective of its socio economic status and that’s where he went wrong because we can very well see that the systems in USA and UK etc cannot be applied in an environment of India or any other developing countries. Weber did provide a very good structure for the organisation of bureaucracy but the part which he missed as cited above was the starting ground for Riggs when he began his research on the relationship between ecology and administration.

Ecology/Environment affects the administrative system both internally as well as externally.

  • Internally it affects when we take note that in actuality the administrator is a man of society and thus when he is taking an administrative decision, he will definitely be influenced by his values, societal and cultural attitude, etc to quite an extent and that needs to be taken into account.
  • Externally also the ecology/environment affects the administrative organisation by means of social values and rules, culture of the society, dependence on other important subsystems prevalent in the society, etc., where the administration and politics have to be in context of the people’s wishes and demands and if they go against it will face a possibility of overthrow and revolt anytime.


Therefore, one can very conveniently understand from the above mentioned, the delicate and crucial relationship between Ecology and Administration. 

Question #2. The legislative control over administration is more theoretical than practical. Comment (150 words)


  • Discuss the various means of legislative control
  • Discuss the flaws of the legislative control.
  • Conclusion


Accountability is the core of the democratic system. The system of legislative control over administration operated through the parliamentary control. As L.D. white said power in a democratic society requires controls and the greater the power, the more need for control.

The Ways through which Legislative exercise control over administration are:

  1. Question, debate, and discussion in the parliament about the functioning of the administrations.
  2. The parliament can draw the attention of the government to a serious problem in administration through calling attention notice.
  3. Debate and discussion during the passage of finance bill and appropriation bill.
  4. The parliamentary committee looks into the details of the functioning of the administration. Committees are the expert bodies they enhance the capacities of the legislation to ensure the accountability of the administration.
  5. Parliamentary audit establishes the legality of expenditure and revenue. The legislature has to counter-check whether the directions outlined in the budget is followed or not.

The Legislative control over administration is not effective as it has to be due to certain reason. And the reasons are:

  1. The legislature is represented by a huge number of laymen who lacks expertise and skills. Lack of time, staff and expertise and technical knowledge to exert effective control in the most meaningful areas
  2. Parliament cannot raise money or any tax unless executive demands it but can only increase or reduce those demands.
  3. The legislature is composed of member predominantly from political parties or the coalition power who are in power. Therefore tools such as question hour, debated and discussion are taken very casually.
  4. Most of the time the legislative businesses are conducted with political motives and overtones.
  5. Funds are not provided many times as the legislature lacks technical knowledge and is not able to understand the need by the executive for excess grants.
  6. No sustained measure of control and surveillance.


The decline in the standard of parliamentary debate and regular disruption in the parliament reduced the effectiveness of the legislature control over administration. The control exercised by the legislature over administration is more theoretical.

Note: You have to write your answers on an A4 size sheet leaving margins on both sides based on UPSC pattern. Mention Your Name on 1st page and Page Number on each page. After writing the answer, Click pictures of each page of the answer sheet and upload them altogether (in JPG/JPEG/PNG format) in the comment section of the same question.

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