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  • Published
    26th Sep, 2023
Geography (GS-I)
Galactic tides

Like the earth’s oceans at their shores, the universe’s galaxies also experience tides, but on a much larger scale called as Galactic tides.


  • A galactic tide is the result of a tidal force imposed by a galaxy.
  • If two galaxies pass sufficiently close (a galaxy collision or just a close encounter) their gravity can affect orbits of stars in the other (galaxy interaction).
  • For example, disruptions such as a tidal arm or tidal tail can result, or a disk galaxy can lose its symmetry (an asymmetrical galaxy).
  • An interacting galaxy is a galaxy displaying evidence of such interaction.
  • A galaxy merger would be the most extreme interaction.

International Relations (GS-II)
L.69 group of nations

The Foreign Ministers of the L.69 group of nations held a meeting on the sidelines of the 78th Session of the United Nations General Assembly to exchange views on reform of the United Nations Security Council.

About the meet:

  • The leaders called the expansion of the UNSC “essential” to make the body “more representative, legitimate, and effective.”
  • They reiterated their expectation that the ongoing Intergovernmental Negotiations (IGN) process on UNSC reform will commence negotiations based on a single consolidated text, with the aim of delivering concrete outcomes within a fixed time frame.
  • They reaffirmed their strong support for the Common African Position (CAP).

Who are L.69 group of countries?

  • The L.69 group consists of developing nations from Asia, Africa, Latin America, the Caribbean, and the Pacific (Small Island Developing States).
  • The group was initially created to promote economic cooperation and to collectively address development challenges.
  • The "L.69 group of countries" refers to a coalition to advocate for their collective interests and concerns within international organizations and negotiations, particularly within the United Nations system.
  • The group is formally known as the "Group of 77 and China," often abbreviated as G-77/China.


  • The group plays a significant role in international negotiations on a wide range of issues, including trade, climate change, sustainable development, and more.
  • It often represents the interests of developing countries in negotiations with developed nations and international organizations.

Economy (GS-III)

After the discovery of lithium in Kashmir, ‘vanadium’, a rare metal has been discovered in Gujarat.


  • The metal has been found in the sediment samples collected from Gulf of Khambhat, which opens into the Arabian Sea off Alang in Gujarat.
  • The new found metal is significant as it is scarce in India and possesses the capability to enhance the resilience of steel and titanium.
  • The metal also has application in vanadium redox batteries to store energy efficiently.

Vanadium and Uses:

  • Vanadium is used primarily as an alloying element in Iron & Steel Industry and to some extent as a stabiliser in titanium and aluminium alloys which are used in aerospace applications.
  • It imparts toughness and strength to steel, alloys and also acts as scavenger for oxygen.
  • Vanadium also offers exceptional resistance to corrosion and elevated temperatures.

Science and Technology (GS-III)
Geospatial intelligence

In summer 2023, the US faced extreme weather events, but geospatial intelligence provided vital information to protect people and communities.

What is Geospatial intelligence?

  • Geospatial intelligence is the collection and integration of data from a network of technologies, including satellites, mobile sensors, ground-control stations and aerial images.
  • Geospatial intelligence is the collection and integration of data from a network of technologies, including satellites, mobile sensors, ground-control stations and aerial images.
  • The data is used to produce real-time maps and simulations to help identify when, where and to what extent a threat is likely to emerge.
  • Government officials, individuals or both can use this information to make informed decisions.
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