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Short News Article

  • Published
    8th Sep, 2023

History (GS-I)

Shiva’s Nataraja form

The magnificent Nataraja sculpture that has been installed at Bharat Mandapam, the venue of the G20 Leaders' Summit, portrays its iconic consideration under the Great Cholas.

About the Nataraja form of Shiva:

  • The Cholas were great patrons of Art and culture.
  • The Cholas were devout Shaivites, building elaborate Shiva temples (like the one in Thanjavur) across their territories.
  • Shiva was first portrayed in sculpture as Nataraja in the fifth century AD, a form that evolved under the Cholas.
  • Shiva has evolved from the Vedic deity Rudra.
  • In many ways, he is the most complex god of the Puranic pantheon.

Statue characteristics:

  • Nataraja is encompassed by flaming aureole or halo, interpreted as “the circle of the world which he [Nataraja] both fills and oversteps.”
  • The Lord’s long dreadlocks flare out due to the energy of his dance, and he strikes a rhythmic pose with his four arms.
  • In his upper right hand, He holds a damru (a hand drum), whose sounds “draw all creatures into his rhythmic motion”, and in his upper left arm, he holds agni (fire), which he can wield to destroy the universe.
  • The crafting process adopted was the traditional ‘lost-wax’ casting method which is indigenous to the Chola era.
The 27-foot-tall 'Nataraja' statue made of 'Ashtadhatu' is installed at the Bharat Mandapam for G20 summit.

Polity and Governance (GS-II)

Central Empowered Committee

The Central Empowered Committee (CEC) will now report to the Environment Ministry, with the ministry nominating members and evaluating recommendations.


  • The Central Empowered Committee (CEC) is a statutory body in India that was established by the Supreme Court in 2002.
  •  Its primary purpose is to address cases of non-compliance with the court's orders related to environmental conservation and forest protection.
  • The CEC plays a crucial role in providing recommendations and expert opinions on matters concerning environmental issues, particularly those related to forests, wildlife, and biodiversity.
  • It conducts field visits, evaluates reports, and submits its findings to the Supreme Court for consideration.
  • The committee aims to ensure that environmental regulations and conservation efforts are effectively implemented across the country.

Environment (GS-III)

Swachh Vayu Sarvekshan 2023

The Union Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change has announced awards under the Swachh Vayu Sarvekshan 2023 (clean air survey) in Bhopal for year 2023.y:

About the survey:

  • It was the second year of the Swachh Vayu Survekshan, carried out by the ministry based on self-assessments submitted by 130 identified cities under the National Clean Air Programmes.
  • The awards are announced in three categories of cities — million plus cities, cities with a population between three and ten lakh and cities of under three lakh population — based on the 2011 population census.
  • For million plus population:
    • Indore in Madhya Pradesh has achieved the top rank in the million-plus population cities.
    • Agra in Uttar Pradesh secured the second rank, followed by Thane in Maharashtra on the third spot.
  • In the second category (Between 3 to 10 lakh population):
    • Amravati of Maharashtra has secured the first rank, followed by Moradabad (Uttar Pradesh) and Guntur (Andhra Pradesh).
  • In third category (under Three lakh population):
    • Two Himachal Pradesh towns — Parwanoo and Kala Amb — have bagged the first two positions
    • Angul in Odisha secured the third place.
  • Parameters defined: The cities were assessed on eight major points, including control of biomass and municipal solid waste burning, road dust, dust from construction and demolition waste, vehicular emissions, industrial emissions, public awareness, and improvement in PM10 concentration.

Location in News

Idukki dam

  • Idukki Dam is in the Indian state of Kerala, specifically in the district of Idukki.
  • It is situated in the Periyar River and serves the purpose of generating hydroelectric power.
  • Constructed between 1969 and 1973, Idukki Dam stands as one of the tallest arch dams in Asia.
  • It was inaugurated by the then Prime Minister of India, Indira Gandhi, in 1976.
  • The dam and its associated reservoir have significant ecological importance.
  • It has led to the creation of a unique ecosystem in the area, with several species of flora and fauna thriving in the region.
    The forests surrounding the reservoir are part of the Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary, which is known for its rich biodiversity.

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