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Syllabus

Environment

Basic Introduction • Concept of environment • Types of environment • Concept of Biosphere • Concept of Ecosystem • Input and output of an ecosystem • Components of ecosystem • Characteristics of an ecosystem • Food chains and food webs • Trophic levels • Ecological pyramids • Laws related to ecology • Geochemical Cycles Biodiversity • What is biodiversity? • Types of biodiversity • Importance of biodiversity • Causes of biodiversity loss • Impact of the loss of biodiversity • Ecologically Sensitive area Biodiversity conservation • Why it needed? • In situ and ex situ conservation • New technologies for conservation • Economic incentives for conservation • Role of government • Role of NGOs • People participation • Community forest management • Eco tourism • Traditional methods of biodiversity conservation • Initiatives in India Water resource degradation • Ocean resource degradation • Groundwater degradation • Surface water degradation • Water management Climate change and environment • Introduction • Causes • Impact • Initiatives • Future initiatives • Some new technologies to overcome climate change • National treaties • International treaties • Analysis of treaties • Country specific initiatives (some important) • Disparity between developed and non developed on environment issues Environment and urbanization • Water degradation in urban areas • Pollution in metros • e-waste Management and Handling • Disposal of untreated sewage • Real estate boom and environment degradation • Haphazard construction in hilly areas and impact • Environment clearance and development issue • Polythene bags and pollution • Impact of tower radiation Mining and environment • Impact of mining on environmental degradation • Go and No-Go policy of government • Forest clearance issues • Issue of displacement Agriculture and environment • Green revolution and its impact • GM food and its impact • Irrigation issues • Contamination of land and water • Desertification • Deforestation Renewable Energy • Solar energy • Hydro energy • Tidal energy • Wind energy • Biomass • OTEC • Magnetohydrodynamics generator • Fuel cell • Geothermal energy • Concept of green cities • Hydrogen as a fuel • Concept of green building • Initiatives in India Environmental impact assessment • Meaning • Process of EIA • Process of EIA in India • Organizations involved in EIA in India • Advantages of EIA • Economic development and EIA linkage • Environment accounting • Environment ethics Concept of Sustainable Development • What is sustainable development • Parameters of Sustainable development • Global and regional dimensions • Sustainable agriculture • Sustainable forest management • Industrial waste management • Water resource management • Initiatives in India in 12th five year plan
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