Cyber-crime encompasses any criminal act dealing with computers and networks.
Some common cyber-crimes are:
Cyber stalking is use of the Internet or other electronic means to stalk someone
"Hacking" is a crime, which entails cracking systems and gaining unauthorized access to the data stored in them.
Phishing refers to the receipt of unsought emails by customers of financial institutions, asked them to enter their username, password or other personal information to access their account for some reason.
Cyber-squatting is the act of registering a famous domain name and then selling it for a fortune.
e) Software Piracy
It is an illegal reproduction and distribution of software for business or personal use. This is considered to be a type of infringement of copy right and a violation of a license agreement.
f) Cyber pornography
This would include pornographic websites; pornographic magazines produced using computers (to publish and print the material) and the Internet (to download and transmit pornographic pictures, photos, writings etc).
g) Sale of illegal articles
This would include sale of narcotics, weapons and wildlife etc., by posting information on websites, auction websites, and bulletin boards.
Cyber-terrorism is the adaptation of terrorism to computer resources, whose purpose is to cause fear in its victims by attacking electronic resources.
i) Cyber Defamation
This occurs when defamation takes place with the help of computers and / or the Internet. E.g. someone publishes defamatory matter about someone on a website or sends e-mails containing defamatory information to all of that person's friends.
Challenges in Monitoring Cyber Crimes
a) Server Location and Laws of Different Countries: Lack of Geographical Boundaries makes social media regulation an arduous task. Major Complicating Factors to secure the networks and Media Much of the hardware and software that make up the communications ecosystem is sourced externally.
b) Encrypted Message: Use of phones/whatsapp to send and receive messages, concerns the government because the communications sent via such devices and applications are encrypted and could not be monitored and consequently hinders the country's efforts to fight terrorism and crime.
c) Complicated Networks: The task of securing the networks is also complicated by the fact that much of the infrastructure is in the hands of private companies who see measures such as security auditing and other regulations and frameworks as adding to their costs. Source of Origin is difficult to find out.
GOI has launched National Cyber Security Policy 2013 which aims at protection of information infrastructure in cyberspace, reduce vulnerabilities, build capabilities to prevent and respond to cyber threats and minimize damage from cyber incidents through a combination of institutional structures, people, process, technology and cooperation.