• NFHS-4 is the first of the NFHS series that collects data in each of India's 29 States and all 7 Union Territories. Also, NFHS-4, for the first time, will provide estimates of most indicators at the district level for all 640 districts of the country included in the 2011 Census.
• In NFHS-4, women aged 15-49 years and men aged 15-54 years are interviewed. When the survey is completed throughout the country, approximately 570,000 households would be covered for information.
• The results from NFHS-4 in 15 States/Union Territories indicate that:
a) Fewer children are dying in infancy and early childhood.
b) All 15 States/Union Territories have rates below 51 deaths per 1,000 live births, although there is considerable variation among the States/Union Territories.
c) Almost all mothers have received antenatal care for their most recent pregnancy and increasing numbers of women are receiving the recommended four or more visits by the service providers.
d) More and more women now give birth in health care facilities and rates have more than doubled in some States in the last decade.
e) At least 6 out of 10 children have received full immunization in 12 of the 15 States / Union Territories.
f) Fewer children under five years of age are now found to be stunted, showing intake of improved nutrition.
g) While this reveals a distinct improvement since the previous survey, it is found that in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Meghalaya more than 40% of children are stunted.
h) Wasting is still very high by international standards in all of the States/Union Territories. Anaemia has also declined, but still remains widespread.
i) Over two-thirds of households in every State/Union Territory have access to an improved source of drinking water, and more than 90% of households have access to an improved source of drinking water in nine of the 15 States/Union Territories.
a) NFHS will provide updates and evidence of trends in key population, health and nutrition indicators, including HIV prevalence. Moreover, the survey will cover a range of health-related issues, including fertility, infant and child mortality, maternal and child health, perinatal mortality, adolescent reproductive health, high-risk sexual behaviour, safe injections, tuberculosis, and malaria, non-communicable diseases, domestic violence, HIV knowledge, and attitudes toward people living with HIV.
b) The information will enable the GOI to provide national and international agencies to monitor and evaluate policies and programmes related to population, health, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS.