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1. Salient features of world’s physical geography

• Geomorphology
a) Meaning & Scope of Geomorphology
b) Internal Structure of Earth
c) The Theory of Continental Drift
d) Plate Tectonics theory
e) Rocks
f) Classification of Forces affecting the landforms
g) Mountain Building
h)Earthquakes & Tsunamis
i) Volcanism
j) Plains and Plateau

• Oceanography
a) Ocean Bottom Relief
b) Temperature and Salinity of Ocean Waters
c) Ocean Currents
d) Tides
e) Coral Reefs
f) Geopolitical importance of Indian Ocean

• Climatology
a) Earth’s Atmosphere
b) Weather and Climate
c) Air Mass, Fronts & Cyclones
d) Climatic division of India

2. Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent)
• Distribution of soil
• Distribution of minerals
• Distribution of rivers
• Distribution of crops

3. Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India)
• Introduction
• Primary sector and locations
• Secondary sector and locations
• Tertiary sector and locations
• Issues in industrial development
• GOI steps
• Recommendations

4.Important Geophysical phenomena
• Earthquakes
• Tsunami
• Volcanic activity
• Cyclone etc.

5. Geographical features and their location
• Mountains
• Plains
• Plateaus
• Other features
• Degradation due to human activities

6. Changes in critical geographical features
• Human impact on geographical features as climate change, ocean acidification, water depletion, pollution, deforestation, desertification, erosion.

GS Mains Syllabus Subtopic Listing