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International Relations

India’s Foreign Policy

  • Evolution of India’s Foreign Policy
    • Panchsheel
    • NAM (Non-Aligned Movement)
    • Cold War Era in India
  • Post 1990 Scenario
    • The Gujral Doctrine
    • Nuclear Doctrine
    • Energy Diplomacy
  • Global Issues
    • Disarmament
    • Climate Change
    • Terrorism
    • Global Governance
    • Indians Abroad
  • Key Debates
    • Does India have the Ability to Protect and Enforce Human Rights and Civil Rights?
    • Does India have the Ability to Safeguard Environment through Sustainable Development?
    • Does India have the Ability to Contribute to Global Economic Development?
    • Does India have the Ability to Secure its Trade Routes?
    • Does India have the Ability to Ensure its Energy Security?
    • Does India have the Ability to Ensure a Favourable International Information Order?
    • Does India have the Ability to Integrate its Diaspora?
  • Opportunities and Challenges for Indian Foreign Policy in its Emergence as a Great Power
    • What is the Strength of India’s Security Scheme?

South Asia

India – Nepal Relations

  • Issues and Concerns
  • Background of Relation
    • Political
    • Economic
    • The Issue of Water and Hydropower Cooperation
    • Social
    • Psychological
  • The Recent Visit of Prime Minister Narendra Modi
  • Recommendations to Improve Relations

India and Bhutan

  • Historical Perspective
  • Economy: A Broad Overview
  • India, Bhutan and  China: issues
  • The Recent Landmark visit by Indian Prime Minister

Indo-Afghan Bilateral Relations

  • India and Afghanistan: A Long History of Bilateral Relations
  • The India-Afghanistan  Development  Partnership
  • Strategic factors  undergirding  India’s  Partnership  with  Afghanistan
  • Afghanistan after  NATO Withdrawal
  • Options for India

India-Bangladesh Relations

  • Development Partnership
  • India-Bangladesh Relations in line with ‘Look East’ policy
  • Recent Boundary Agreements and their analysis

India-Maldives Relations

  • A Brief History
  • Geostrategic Importance of Maldives
  • Development Cooperation
  • Security Risks

India-Sri Lanka Relations

  • Commercial Relations
  • Developmental Cooperation
  • Fishermen Issue
  • Modi’s Visit to Sri Lanka

India-Myanmar Relations

  • Introduction
  • Relation through ages
  • Recent change in policy
  • China Role

Indo-Pak Relations

  • Major Crisis
  • Water Dispute
  • Current Internal  Scenario
  • Impact on  India
  • Developments in Last One Year


  • Problems Besetting  the Organisation
  • Built in Contradictions
  • Conflicting Security Perceptions
  • Problem of Diverse Political Culture
  • Indo-Pak Conflict
  • Main Problem: Absence of Required Political Thrust
  • Problem of Resource Development
  • Prospects For  SAARC
  • Inherent Positive Points of the Region

Relevance of Non-Alignment in present India

  • What is NAM?
  • Relevance in  present  era

Central Asia

CIS Countries of Central Asia

  • Introduction
  • India-Turkmenistan
  • India-Kazakhstan
  • India Tajikistan
  • Recent Visit of the Prime Minister
  • China And Central Asia: issue
  • International North-South Transport Corridor
  • Shanghai Cooperation Organisation


  • India-Mongolia Bilateral Cooperation
  • Deal on Uranium Supply
  • PM Modi’s Mongolia Visit

West Asia

                                                          India – UAE Relations      

  • Background of the relation
  • Political and economic relation


  • Iran Nuclear Deal
  • India Iran Relations
  • US-Geopolitical and Geo-Economic Consideration in Iran
  • India’s Recent visit to Iran


  • Israel and Palestine
  • India – Israel Relations

India – Saudi Arabia

  • Areas of Cooperation
  • Challenges in relations
  • Prime Minister’s visit to Saudi Arabia

Asia – Pacific

Asia-Pacific Region

  • Zones of Activity
  • Regional Groupings
  • Geopolitics of Asia Pacific

India-South East Asia

  • Steps in Indo-ASEAN Relations
  • India-ASEAN Security Co-operation

India-Asean Economic Cooperation

  • Singapore
  • Vietnam
  • Indonesia
  • India ASEAN FTA in Services

Indo-Japan Bilateral Relationship

  • Historical Background
  • Economy Centric Relationship
  • Contemporary Perspective
  • Indian Diaspora
  • Implications of the Recent visit by Indian PM

Indo-Australia Relationship

  • Background
  • Immigration Issue and Indian Diaspora
  • Economic Relationship
  • Issue of Nuclear Cooperation

India – South Korea

  • India South Korea Relations: Brief Background
  • Economic Partnership in Recent Years
  • Recent Visit of The Prime Minister


  • Economic Cooperation
  • Strategic Cooperation
  • Geo-political Issues concerning India-Vietnam Energy Cooperation
  • China’s Response
  • India’s Response

India & Africa

India and Africa

  • Historical Connections
  • Gandhi’s Role
  • Nehru’s Role
  • Strengthening of Ties
  • South-south Engagement
  • Current Dynamics
  • Economic Cooperation
  • Human resources development and capacity building
  • Energy Cooperation
  • Military Security Co-operation
  • Trade Policy under Modi
  • Afro-Indian Trade
  • Indian investment in Africa
  • African investment in India
  • Development cooperation and assistance

India & Europe

India-Russia Bilateral Relationship

  • Shanghai Co-operation Organization
  • Warming Relationship between Pakistan and Russia

The Ukraine Issue

  • About Crimea
  • The Issue
  • Eastern Ukraine
  • Eurasian Union


  • Strategic Partnership
  • Key Takeaway from Prime Minister’s Recent Visit to France


  • Key Takeaway from Recent Visit of the Prime Minister

United Kingdom

  • Ties in Current Context
  • Possible Developments
  • Scotland’s Referendum
  • Debate-Does Britain Owe Reparations to India?


India-USA Relations

  • History of India USA Relations
  • Area of Co-operation: Strategic Consultations
  • Area of Co-operation : Counter terrorism and Internal Security
  • Area of Co-operation : Trade and Economic
  • Area of Co-operation : Energy and Climate Change
  • Area of Co-operation : Science & Technology (S&T) and Space
  • Area of Co-operation : People to People Ties
  • Area of Co-operation : Defence Cooperation
  • Intellectual Property Issues
  • USA: Need For Gun Control

India-China Relations

  • Background of the Relationship
  • Economic Relation
  • China India Water Related Issue
  • “String of Pearls Strategy”
  • Key Takeaway from Prime Minister’s Visit to China
  • China’s Maritime Silk Route Implications for India

South China Sea Dispute

  • Main Disputes
  • Resources as a Driver of Competition
  • Attempts for Resolution
  • India and South China Dispute

Indian Ocean

Seychelles and Mauritius

  • India – Seychelles
  • India – Mauritius

Security Challenges in the Indian Ocean Region

  • The Pivot to Asia – US Policy Shift
  • South China Sea- Issues of Mistrust and CBM- ASEAN
  • Growing Economies in the Region and their Interplay
  • Tsunami
  • Piracy off the Coast of Somalia
  • Neighbourhood Issues and Terrorism
  • Energy Routes – SLOC Vulnerability; Malacca Straits/Straits of Hormuz dependence
  • Fisheries and Livelihood Issues
  • Environmental Security
  • Declaration of Indian Ocean as Zone of Peace

Indian Diaspora

Indian Diaspora

  • Role played by Indian Diaspora
  • Issue of safety of Indians abroad
  • Schemes for Welfare of Overseas Indian
  • Narendra Modi and Indian Diaspora

Indian Diaspora in Gulf

  • Status of Indian Diasporas
  • Issue faced by Diasporas
  • Nitaqat law and Present Status

GS Mains Syllabus Subtopic Listing