Climate smart strategies like choice of suitable crop and cultivars, integrated farming system, site‐specific nutrient management, residue management, intercropping with legume, conservation agriculture‐based resource conservation technology, agro‐forestry and crop diversification can help minimize negative impacts to some extent and strengthen farmers by sustainably increasing productivity and income.
Location‐specific medium‐range weather forecasting will play a major role in designing agricultural practices especially in the event of extreme climatic event like high rainfall, drought, frost, hailstorms and heat waves. Water‐ saving technologies and water‐harvesting structures to enhance the availability of water at critical stages of crop growth will be important practice in chronically water‐deficient areas.
Crop insurance will provide economic security in case of heavy crop loss due to climatic extremes like flood, drought and hailstorms especially to small and marginal farmers. In general, the CSA options integrate traditional and innovative practices, technologies and services that are relevant for particular location. Thus, to meet food security we need such smart agricultural practices which are sustainable, economic and environmentally sound.
The agriculture sector is an integral part of India’s growth story. It employs 58 percent of the population and contributes 18 percent of the country’s GDP. It is responsible for both food and nutritional security and is key to efforts towards alleviating poverty and reducing inequality. In the first quarter of 2020, agriculture was the only sector that showed some growth (3.4 percent) when the economy contracted overall by a massive 23.4 percent. At the same time, agriculture contributes 16 percent of the total greenhouse gas emissions in the country, second only to the energy sector
Distribution of GHG Emissions (Gg CO2e) by sector
If India is aiming to transition to a green economy and achieve its Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), it will have to pay greater attention to the agricultural sector. Agriculture can yet prove to be a catalyst for India to achieve a standard of inclusive, green growth. It is important, therefore, to create a pathway towards climate-smart agriculture that is not just accessible and feasible to India’s small and marginal farmers, but also creates a stable income stream. Consequently, a just transition to climate-smart agriculture requires combining the need for stabilised farmers’ incomes with the shift towards greener and less climate-exhaustive practises.
Mitigation through farming practices
Mitigation through transgenic crops
Adaptation is a key factor that will shape the future severity of climate change impacts on food production. To deal with the impact of climate change, the potential adaptation strategies are as follows:
For example, in 2010 the variety Sahbhagi Dhan, released and notified in India, showed a consistently good performance under transplanted low‐land conditions and rain‐fed direct‐seeded upland.
This programme was started by ICAR during February 2011 with the following objectives:
Smart agricultural practices in India promoted by ICAR are as follows:
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