In 1947, Britain gave up its rule of India. The Indian Independence Act divided British India into two independent states, the Dominion of Pakistan and Dominion of India. According to the Act, "the suzerainty of His Majesty over the Indian States lapses, and with it, all treaties and agreements in force at the date of the passing of this Act between His Majesty and the rulers of Indian States."So each of the princely states was now free to join India or Pakistan or to remain independent. Most of the princes acceded to one or the other of the two nations.
Maharaja Hari Singh wanted his state to remain independent, joining neither Pakistan nor India but maintaining friendly relations with both. For this reason, he offered a standstill agreement to both the countries. Pakistan immediately accepted the offer, even though no actual agreement was ever executed. India requested a representative to be sent for discussions. At any event, the agreement with Pakistan soon came unstuck as Pakistan imposed an economic blockade on the state in early September, stopping essential supplies and trade in timber and produce, resulting in heated exchanges between the two governments. The state turned to India for help, which started air-lifting essential items like salt and kerosene.
The Maharaja also faced a rebellion in Poonch and Pakistan started arming the rebels. Then it launched a full-blown invasion of the state using Pashtun tribes with an intent to take the capital Srinagar. Unable to withstand the invasion, the Maharaja requested India for military assistance. India agreed to airlift troops under three conditions:
The Maharaja accepted the conditions and signed the Instrument of Accession in favour of India. Sheikh Abdullah was appointed as the Head of Emergency Administration to run the affairs in Kashmir while the Maharaja himself withdrew to Jammu.
The Instrument was accepted by the Governor-General. With the signature of the Maharaja and the acceptance by the Governor-General, the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir became a part of the Dominion of India. Indian troops landed at Srinagar airport in Kashmir and secured the airport before proceeding to evict the invaders from the Kashmir Valley.
The princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, thus acceded to India on 27 October 1947. Later in 1948, The Maharaja appointed Sheikh Abdullah as the Prime Minister and his son Karan Singh as the Prince Regent to act on his behalf. Jammu and Kashmir operated as a princely state of India until 1952.
After the Constituent Assembly of Jammu and Kashmir was elected in 1952, it passed a resolution supporting the abolition of monarchy. Via the 1952 Delhi Agreement, the Government of India conceded the wishes of the state's people and the monarchy was abolished. Prince Karan Singh then accepted the post of Sadar-i-Riyasat (constitutional Head of State).
Sino-Indo War, 1962
The cause of the war was a dispute over the Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh border regions. India claimed that Aksai Chin belong to Kashmir, China claimed that it was a part of Xinjiang. In 20th October 1962 Chinese troops launched in Ladakh and crossed Mc Mahon line. Chinese troops advantaged over Indian troops and captured Rezongla in Chushal in the western part, as well as eastern part of Tawang . On November 21, Chinese Prime Minister Zhou En lai declared a unilateral ceasefire. On 18 May 1964 Pakistan again raised the question about J&K in Security Council.
Indo-Pak War 1965
It is called Second Kashmir War. Pakistan’s operation Gibraltar was designed to infiltrate forces into J&K to precipitate an insurgency against India. In May 1965 large scale of fighting erupted in Ranna of Kutch between India and Pakistan. Fighting spread across the ceasefire line in J&K in May 1965.The five week war inflicted thousands of causalities on both sides.
Indo-Pak War 1971
Indian troops invaded East Pakistan. This lead to war and fighting spread to Punjab, Rajasthan and Kashmir. Dhaka fell to Indian forces and Bangladesh came into being. In 1972 Pakistan President Z.A.Bhutto and Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi sign the Simla Agreement, Which provided for return of territory captured in 1971, return of Pakistani prisoners of war and resolution of mutual differences through all peaceful means. The accord renamed the cease fire line in J&K as the LOC
The 1999 Kargil War took place when Pakistani forces and Kashmiri militants were detected a top the Kargil ridges and when both sides had essentially ceased their military operations. It is believed that the planning for the operation, by Pakistan, may have occurred about as early as the autumn of 1998. Soon, Indian forces were prepared for a major high-altitude offensive against Pakistani posts along the border in the disputed Kashmir region.
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