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What is Genomics?

  • Categories
    Target PT 2015
  • Published
    12th Jun, 2015

Genomics is the scientific discipline of mapping, sequencing, and analyzing genomes. This is the field in which basically one uses the genomic information in light of the new experimental data obtained, to answer the related biological, medical, or industrial questions and challenges faced by the human population.
The term was coined by Thomas Roderick in 1986.

Projects related to Genomics

1. Genome Resource Bank

Genome Resource Bank (GRB) is a frozen repository of biological materials, including sperm and embryos, tissue, blood products and DNA. It is going to being used as a conservation tool for protecting and preserving biodiversity. It serves as a convenient source for blood, tissue and DNA for analyzing genetic diversity, paternity and disease exposure, etc.

2. Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project (HGP) was the international, collaborative research program whose goal was the complete mapping and understanding of all the genes of human beings.  HGP has given the world a resource of detailed information about the structure, organization and function of the complete set of human genes. The information that was revealed by the Human Genome Project can be used to improve diagnosis of disease. The risk associated with genetic predisposition to diseases can be calculated and based on the results new strategies can be used to treat these diseases such as gene therapy, customized drugs based on individual patients genetic profiles. The information from Human genome Project is also being used in microbial Genomics to detect and treat pathogens, use microorganisms in bio-remediation where environment can be monitored to detect pollution levels and clean up toxic waste.

3. International HapMap Project

The International HapMap Project is an organization that aims to develop a haplotype map (HapMap) of the human genome, which will describe the common patterns of human genetic variation. The International HapMap Project is a collaboration among researchers at academic centers, non-profit biomedical research groups and private companies in Canada, China, Japan, Nigeria, the United Kingdom, and the United States.  HapMap is a key resource for researchers to find genetic variants affecting health, disease and responses to drugs and environmental factors. The information produced by the project is made freely available to researchers around the world.

UPSC 2011 Prelims question on Genomics

• At present scientists can determine the arrangement or relative positions of genes or DNA sequences on a chromosome. How does this knowledge benefit us?

1. It is possible to know the pedigree of livestock.
2. It is possible to understand the causes of all human diseases.
3. It is possible to develop disease-resistant animal breeds.

Which of the statements give above is/are correct?

(a)    1 and 2 only
(b)    2 only
(c)    1 and 3 only
(d)    1,2, and 3

Ans: d


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