TB is an infectious disease caused by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It typically affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect other sites (extrapulmonary TB). The disease is spread when people who are sick with pulmonary TB expel bacteria into the air, for example by coughing. Overall, a relatively small proportion (5–15%) of the estimated 1.7 billion people infected with M. tuberculosis will develop TB disease during their lifetime. However, the probability of developing TB disease is much higher among people infected with HIV, and also higher among people affected by risk factors such as under-nutrition, diabetes, smoking and alcohol consumption.
Diagnostic tests for TB disease include the following:
• Rapid molecular tests – The only rapid test for diagnosis of TB currently recommended by WHO is the Xpert® MTB/RIF assay (Cepheid, USA). It can provide results within 2 hours, and was initially recommended (in 2010) for diagnosis of pulmonary TB in adults. Since 2013, it has also been recommended for use in children and to diagnose specific forms of extra-pulmonary TB. The test has much better accuracy than sputum smear microscopy;
• Sputum smear microscopy –Developed more than 100 years ago, this technique requires the examination of sputum samples using a microscope to determine the presence of bacteria. In the current case definitions recommended by WHO, one positive result is required for a diagnosis of smear-positive pulmonary TB;
• Culture-based methods – The current reference standard, they require more developed laboratory capacity and can take up to 12 weeks to provide results.
There are also tests for TB that is resistant to first-line and second-line anti-TB drugs. They include Xpert MTB/ RIF, which simultaneously tests for TB and resistance to rifampicin (the most effective first-line anti-TB drug); rapid line probe assays (LPAs) that test for resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid (referred to as first-line LPAs); a rapid LPA that tests for resistance to fluoroquinolones and injectable anti-TB drugs (referred to as a second-line LPA); and sequencing technologies.
The 2035 targets are a 95% reduction in TB deaths and a 90% reduction in the TB incidence rate, compared with levels in 2015. The 2030 targets are a 90% reduction in TB deaths and an 80% reduction in the TB incidence rate, compared with levels in 2015. The most immediate milestones, set for 2020, are a 35% reduction in TB deaths and a 20% reduction in the TB incidence rate, compared with levels in 2015.
1. Which of the following is not the target of Sustainable Development Goal 3?
a) By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100 000 live births.
b) By 2030, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents.
c) By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria.
d) Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection.
Exp: SDG 3 targets are:
3.1 By 2030, reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100 000 live births
3.2 By 2030, end preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1000 live births
3.3 By 2030, end the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases and other communicable diseases
3.4 By 2030, reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being
3.5 Strengthen the prevention and treatment of substance abuse, including narcotic drug abuse and harmful use of alcohol
3.6 By 2020, halve the number of global deaths and injuries from road traffic accidents
3.7 By 2030, ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services, including for family planning, information and education, and the integration of reproductive health into national strategies and programmes
3.8 Achieve universal health coverage, including financial risk protection, access to quality essential health-care services and access to safe, effective, quality and affordable essential medicines and vaccines for all
3.9 By 2030, substantially reduce the number of deaths and illnesses from hazardous chemicals and air, water and soil pollution and contamination.