Geography as an Optional: Beginners to Experts by Rohit Lodha

GS SCORE COURSES

IAS 2019: GS MAINS ADVANCE

  • Batch Starts: 22nd October, 2018
  • Timing: 4:30 PM to 8:00 PM

IAS 2019: GEOGRAPHY FOUNDATION

  • Batch Starts: 28th September, 2018
  • Timing: 2:00 PM to 4:30 PM

IAS 2019: Political Science Foundation

  • Batch Starts: 31st Oct 2018
  • Timing: 02:00PM TO 4:30PM , Monday-Friday

IAS 2019: Pub Ad Foundation

  • Batch Starts: 31st Oct 2018
  • Timing: 4:30 PM TO 7:30 PM , Monday-Friday

IAS 2019: GS MAINS ADVANCE

  • Batch Starts: 22nd October, 2018
  • Live Timing: 2:00 PM to 4:30 PM

IAS 2019: GEOGRAPHY FOUNDATION

  • Batch Starts: 28th September, 2018
  • Live Timing: 2:00 PM to 4:30 PM

IAS 2019: Political Science Foundation

  • Batch Starts: 31st Oct 2018
  • Live Timing: 02:00PM TO 4:30PM , Monday-Friday

IAS 2019: Pub Ad Foundation

  • Batch Starts: 31st Oct 2018
  • Live Timing: 4:30 PM TO 7:30 PM , Monday-Friday

IAS 2019 : GS MAINS Q&A- batch 3

  • Test Starts: 14 October, 2018
  • Test Timing: 09:00 PM to 12:00 Noon

IAS 2019: Prelims Test Series

  • Test Starts: 14 October, 2018
  • Timing: 09:00 AM TO 11:00 AM

Current Affairs

T.K. Viswanathan Committee on Hate Speech

An expert committee, constituted by the Centre after the Supreme Court struck down the controversial Section 66A of the Information Technology Act in 2015, has recommended that the Indian Penal Code, Code of Criminal Procedure and the IT Act be amended to introduce stringent provisions, specifying punishment, to deal with cases of hate speech and use of cyberspace to spread hatred and incitement.

What is Section 66A of the IT Act?

According to this section any person who sends, by means of a computer resource or a communication device:

any information that is grossly offensive or has menacing character; or

any information which he knows to be false, but for the purpose of causing annoyance, inconvenience, danger, obstruction, insult, injury, criminal intimidation, enmity, hatred or ill will, persistently by making use of such computer resource or a communication device; or

any electronic mail or electronic mail message for the purpose of causing annoyance or inconvenience or to deceive or to mislead the addressee or recipient about the origin of such messages,

shall be punishable with imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and with fine.”

Section 66A provides punishment for sending offensive messages through communication services. These messages may be any information created, transmitted or received on a computer system, resource or device including attachments in the form of Text, Images, Audio, Video or Any other electronic record which may be transmitted with the message

The law targets messages that...

Are grossly offensive or menacing.

Proffer false information intending to cause annoyance, inconvenience, intimidation, insult, obstruction, etc.

Are intended at deceiving the addressee about the origin of the message.

Supreme Court judgement on Section 66A

The apex court has struck down the provision in the cyber law which provides police power to arrest a person for posting “offensive” content online and provides for a three-year jail term.

In the judgement, the court said the liberty of thought and expression was a cardinal value of paramount significance under the Constitution. Three concepts, fundamental in understanding the reach of this right were discussion, advocacy and incitement. Discussion, or even advocacy, of a particular cause, no matter how unpopular it was, was at the heart of the right to free speech and it was only when such discussion or advocacy reached the level of incitement that it could be curbed on the ground of causing public disorder.

The court then went on to say that Section 66A actually had no proximate connection with public order or with incitement to commit an offence. “The information disseminated over the Internet need not be information which ‘incites’ anybody at all. Written words may be sent that may be purely in the realm of ‘discussion’ or ‘advocacy’ of a ‘particular point of view’. Further, the mere causing of annoyance, inconvenience, danger, etc., or being grossly offensive or having a menacing character are not offences under the [Indian] Penal Code at all.

Further Section 69A allows the government to block online content that “threatens the security of the state” or fulfills other conditions. The Supreme Court order upheld the section, noting that 69A is a “narrowly drawn provision with several safeguards”. However, it clarified that the blocking order must be specific and clear and should come from the government, or from a court.

About T.K. Viswanathan Committee

An expert committee was constituted by the Centre after the Supreme Court struck down the controversial Section 66A of the Information Technology Act in 2015.

The Committee has accordingly proposed substantive alterations in the IPC and procedural safeguards in the Information Technology Act.

The recommendations have been discussed below:

Amend IPC section 153 C to include in communication “spoken or written words, signs, visible representation, information, audio, video, or combination of both, transmitted, retransmitted through any telecommunication service, communication device or computer resource”. Punishment should be up to two years or fine of Rs 5,000 or both.

Punishment for causing fear, alarm or provocation of violence in certain cases by amending IPC section 505 A, punishment to any person or group of persons who intentionally, on grounds of religion, race, caste or community, gender, sexual orientation, place of birth, residence, language, disability or tribe, uses any means of communication to communicate. Punishment should be upto a year, or Rs 5000 or both.

Amendment to Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 by adding sections 25 B and 25 C — creating the post of a State Cyber Crime Coordinator and District Cyber Crime Cell, respectively.

It has been noted that law enforcement agencies face several challenges during investigation and prosecution of harmful online conduct due to the dearth of technically trained police personnel, lack of access to expert advice, procedural hurdles in conducting cross jurisdictional investigations, absence of comprehensive data on the crimes reported and the lack of a quick and streamlined procedure for takedown of malicious online content. In an attempt to address some of these issues, the Committee proposes the insertion of two new provisions namely, sections 25B and 25C in the Code of Criminal Procedure 1973 thereby creating the post of a State Cyber Crime Coordinator and establishing a District Cyber Crime Cell, respectively.

Amendments to the Information Technology Act 2000 because at present Section 78 of the IT Act 2000 authorises only officer of the rank of Inspector and above to investigate offences under this Act. However, as young police officers, who are directly recruited at the level of Sub-inspectors are better equipped and trained to investigate cyber offences, there has been a demand from the State Police that this provision needs an amendment. Based on requests received from various stakeholders, an amendment to Section 78 of the Information Technology Act 2000 has been suggested to authorize a police officer not below the rank of Sub- Inspector, assisted by a District Cyber Crime Cell, to investigate into any offence committed under the Information Technology Act 2000.

The guidelines also cover the offences that are likely to be most commonly committed by the sending of communications via social media. These guidelines equally apply to the re-sending (or re-tweeting / sharing) of communications and whenever they refer to the sending of a communication, the guidelines should also be read as applying to the re-sending of a communication.

When

National Banana Festival

National Banana Festival aims to showcase the wide diversity of bananas in India.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa

Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa was a mystic and a yogi who translated complex spiritual concepts into lucid and easily intelligible manner.

Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple

Meenakshi Temple is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai River in the temple city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

National Banana Festival

National Banana Festival aims to showcase the wide diversity of bananas in India.

Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa

Sri Ramakrishna Paramhansa was a mystic and a yogi who translated complex spiritual concepts into lucid and easily intelligible manner.

Meenakshi Sundareswarar Temple

Meenakshi Temple is a historic Hindu temple located on the southern bank of the Vaigai Riverin the temple city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India.

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