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  • Published
    2nd Jan, 2023

International Relations

Croatia becomes a fully integrated member of the EU

Croatia has switched to the euro and entered Europe’s passport-free zone – two important milestones for the country after joining the European Union (EU) nearly a decade ago.


  • The Balkan nation bid farewell to its kuna currency and became the 20th member of the eurozone.
  • It is now the 27th nation in the Schengen zone, the world’s largest passport-free travel area, which enables more than 400 million people to move freely around its members.
  • Croatia, a former Yugoslav republic of 3.9 million people that fought a war of independence in the 1990s, joined the EU in 2013.

Polity & Governance

Government launches ‘Prahari’ app for BSF Jawans

The government launched the Border Security Force (BSF) mobile app 'Prahari'. This app is a great example of proactive governance.


  • With the app, BSF soldiers can get personal and service related information, housing, Ayushman-CAPF and leave related information on their mobiles.
  • Soldiers can also get information on various welfare schemes through this app.


TN Launches Project To Protect Nilgiri Tahr

In India's first-of-its-kind initiative, Tamil Nadu launched the 'Nilgiri Tahr project' to restore the state animal's original habitat and stabilising its population.

  • Duration: Five-year
  • The initiative was devised in line with Project Tiger and Project Elephant.

About the Species

  • Nilgiri Tahr is an endangered wild goat species.
  • Local name: Varaiaadu
  • Habitat: The species was earlier found along the entire stretch of the Western Ghats, but they now remain restricted to small fragmented pockets in Tamil Nadu and Kerala.- WWF data (2015) 
    • The Eravikulam National Park in Anamalai hills, Kerala, is home to the largest population of the Nilgiri Tahr.
  • Protection Status: They are protected under Schedule-I of the Wildlife (Protection) Act of India, 1972 and considered endangered by the IUCN.

Science & Technology

Ethylene glycol and the controversy behind it

The Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) initiated a probe into the claims of Uzbekistan that at least 18 children died after consuming cough syrup manufactured by an Indian firm.

What is Ethylene glycol?

  • Ethylene glycol is an organic compound with the formula (CH?OH)?.
  • It is an odourless, colourless, flammable, viscous liquid. It is mainly used for two purposes
    • as a raw material in the manufacture of polyester fibres
    • for antifreeze formulations
  • In addition to its use in antifreeze, ethylene glycol is used as an ingredient in hydraulic fluids, printing inks, and paint solvents.
  • It is also used as a reagent in making polyesters, explosives, alkyd resins, and synthetic waxes.


  • According to the WHO, diethylene glycol and ethylene glycol are toxic to humans and can be fatal if consumed.
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