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Bharat, that is India, now moves another milestone to celebrate its 75th year of independence. It is also a milestone to reflect back on as to what all we achieved in these 75 years, and what more we need to achieve. Finally, we need to articulate our vision, firm up a goal and get people, policies, and institutions aligned to the future vision. India has moved fast forward on all fronts.

Bharat Katha, India's Story of Seven and a Half Decade is an initiative of GS SCORE to celebrate India's 75 years of freedom and analyse these 75 years of its glorious history through the lens of all relevant spheres.

This series is a detailed source of information about the country’s political, social, economic, and cultural traditions since Independence. Through different articles, it reflects how social issues, economy, language, gender, nationalism, democracy, and constitutional development played a significant role in a historical context to shape present India.

This initiative becomes more relevant for UPSC Civil Services Examinations as it contains special in-depth articles based on different themes of IAS Exam Syllabus: Indian History, Culture, Geography, Economy, Indian Polity, Governance, International Relations, Science technology, Environment, Disaster Management, and Internal Security.

Together, we are on this journey, which starts a 12 months countdown to India’s 75th Independence Day.

Bharat Katha Documents

1. Unsung Heroes of India

History is about facts, narratives, story-telling, inferring causality and drawing correlations, but never devoid of the “perspective” from which events have been put into words intended to connect our past with our present.

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2. India’s gain from British India

The rule of the British in India is possibly the most controversial and the most hotly debated aspect of the history of the British empire.

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3. The British Raj and the Road to Independence

India, often known as "THE GOLDEN BIRD" or "QUEEN’S NECKLACE," was one of the most important colonies of British Empire. As India was politically, socially, and economically distinct from the rest of the British empire's colonies, British policies in India differed from those in other colonies.

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Culture: the Soul of India
1. Different Facets of Indian Culture

We Indians have a strong sense of pride in the distinctiveness and diversity of their culture. Be it the country’s agricultural expansions and technological advancements in infrastructure, science and engineering are sources of pride. But a considerable amount of pride stems from India's rich artistic cultural exports of music, fine arts, literature and spirituality.

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2. India’s culture & Soft power

“A country’s ability to influence the preferences and behaviours of various actors in the international arena (states, corporations, communities, publics etc.) through attraction or persuasion rather than coercion.” -- Joseph Nye

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Geography: Mapping India
1. The Great Migration and Partition of India

This year we will be celebrating the 75th year of Independence from British Rule which also brings the legacies of partition with it. The freedom was followed by a period of terror in which over 14 million people were forcibly made to relocate and about 2 million lost their lives. The event makes us face up many questions, like why this catastrophic moment came to existence, who was responsible for it, alternatives available to avert it, and many others.

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2. Issue of internal migration in India/ the great migration
Society: Diverse Elements
3. Caste system in India

The caste system is an important aspect of Indian social institutions. The word caste has created confusion in the sense that it is used to denote both Varna and Jati. Technically, both are different to each other. Several changes have occurred in the caste system due to the processes of Sanskritisation, westernization, modernization, democratic decentralization, industrialization and urbanization, etc.

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4. Caste in changing society

However, in the changing situation caste has adapted too many new features like having formal organizations, becoming less rigid and having a link with politics.

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5. Women organizations and their role in India

Indian Society, which is largely male-dominated, for the position of women in society. Not only men, but even most women also internalize their position in society as a fair description of their status through the ages. These generalizations apply to some degree to practically every known society in the world.

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6. Most Populous vs most young: stages of demographic transition, how southern states achieved desired TFR, demographic dividend to be reaped in the 21st century
7. Indian Women and Innovation
8. How is India’s society?
9. The great Indian challenges (Challenges, gender inequality, poverty)
Polity: The State of the State
1. The Greatest Indian: Contribution to different sectors

Choosing the ‘Greatest Indian After Gandhi’ is difficult when the present exerts such a strong pull over our view of the past and there is a wide variation between how the ‘greatness’ of an individual is assessed by the common person and by the experts. Nations need heroes, but the construction of a national pantheon is rarely straightforward or uncontested.

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2. Landmark Judgments that changed India’s Polity

To differentiate between “great” and “landmark”, it is necessary, to begin with, some very fine distinctions. A great judgment is one that restores the constitutional values of a polity from the waywardness into which it may have fallen, while a landmark judgment is one which opens up new directions in our constitutional thinking and, in the process, adds new dimensions to what is regarded as established constitutional principles. If “great” restore the centrality of constitutional values, “landmark” revitalises them.

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3. Thoughts that changed India

Bharat, that is India, now moves another milestone to celebrate its 75th year of independence. It is also a milestone to reflect back on as to what all we achieved in these 75 years, and what more we need to achieve. Finally, we need to articulate our vision, firm up a goal and get people, policies and institutions aligned to the future vision. India has moved fast forward on all fronts, but due to lack of holistic approach, the success of one side is decimated by the ignorance of the other side.

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4. Evolution of India’s map since 1947
5. Amendments to constitution and its impact
6. Constitutional Supremacy vs Parliamentary sovereignty: Key judgments, basic structure, etc
7. Role of judiciary to maintain federal structure, Judicial Review, Activism, and Overreach
Governance: Doing the rights things in the right way
1. Post-Independence Governance in India

It is now more than 70 years down the line after a historic non-violent movement won Independence for the country freeing it from the clutches of colonial rule.

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2. India and global Governance
3. Civil Services Reforms: Historical Underpinnings
4. The not Untouchables (minority and casteism)
5. Ethnic Conflict & India’s civil society
6. Managing Social Welfare Schemes
7. The challenges of good Governance in India
8. Rural vs Urban Governance
9. The minorities conundrum
International Relations: Growth & Connectivity
2. Diaspora: freedom struggle, role in nation building through soft power and remittances, notable diasporas- (sundar pichai, kamla harris, satya nadella etc)
3. Asia’s next Superpower
4. Shapes of Political Boundaries- from post independence consolidation, boundary dispute with pakistan, bangladesh, recent China's standoff @ Doklam and Finger-5
5. Transformation of India’s Foreign Policy
Science & Technology: New frontiers & Beyond
2. The Role of Technology in Nation-Building

Science and Technology hold the key to the progress and development of any nation.

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3. Technology: from import/technology transfer for industries, defense, power plants etc. to indigenous cryogenic engine, missiles, Tejas plane, major IT exporter and PLI scheme for industrial exports; quote SEZs, IFSCs etc
4. Strengthening democracy with technology
5. Technology led Citizen Centric Governance
Internal Security: the rough elephant
2. Internal Security Challenges
Disaster Management: the necessity of a country
1. Major Historical Disasters in India
  • India is a diverse country in terms of climate, terrain and relief and thus is prone to different types of disasters which include manmade disasters as well as natural disasters.
  • Rapid industrial development and urbanization coupled with effects of climate change has aggravated the disasters in India. India has witnessed a large number of disasters since Independence.
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Economy: Unlocking India’s future
1. The future of Indian agriculture

Over the last 75 years, Indian agriculture has made rapid strides. From a meagre 55 million tonnes, production of foodgrains has increased to a record 308.65 million tonnes last season (July 2020-June 2021). Production of pulses, coarse cereals, natural fibres, sugarcane, vegetables and fruits have all increased manifold since Independence.

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2. Evolution of Indian Economy (India’s growth story)

As India is going to be commemorating the 75th year of independence this year, it's relevant to look into the path the Indian economy has taken and how this journey has helped India to reach its present state. The evolution of the Indian economy has seen its share of ups and downs, economic crisis to double-digit growth and now eyeing towards becoming a $ 5 trillion economy. The purpose of this discussion is to analyse how much has India really achieved in the last 74 years in fulfilling the aspirations on which it was founded.

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3. Taxation in India: Genesis, Evolution and Current Perspective

The word ‘tax’ has been derived from the Latin word taxare or taxo, meaning ‘to assess the worth of something’. Taxation in any economy is an essential part of financial management as any government of the world requires huge revenue to manage and run its administration, spend money on essential public services such as health and education and infrastructure such as roadways

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4. The growth challenge
5. External and Internal Goods: Self sufficiency in food- imports of food produce, green revolution, white revolution to food self sufficient, food processing and major exporter of horticulture, cereals, milk etc.
Environment: A matter of Survival
1. Environmental governance: India’s changing scenario

Environmental governance is a concept in political ecology and environmental policy that advocates sustainability (sustainable development) as the supreme consideration for managing all human activities— political, social and economic. In other words, it refers to the processes of decision-making involved in the control and management of the environment and natural resources.

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2. Evolution of Environmental Laws of India

The idea of environmental protection is an age-old idea imbibed in the Indian cultural ethos since time immemorial.

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3. When will India get independence from environmental pollution?
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