Natural resources are essential for our survival. Agricultural land provides us with food; a sufficient supply of clean and potable water sustains life; and raw material of various kinds is needed for shelter.
Natural resources are required not only for meeting our basic needs, but also for fulfilling our aspirations for a better quality of life, for higher standards of living, for comfort and ease, and for economic and social well-being.
Every society depends on natural resources like biogenic and mineral raw materials, on energy sources like fossil fuels and solar and wind energy, and on clean water.
The environmental media and ecosystems are also understood as being natural resources, with their biodiversity, the different functions of their land areas, and their services. They constitute the essential elements that keep our economy functioning and guarantee an increase in the well-being of mankind.
Kashmir has history of 6000 years, intermittently ruled by outsiders. The history of Kashmir is mainly divided into four periods:
Shah Mir ascended the throne under the name of Sultan Shamasud-din, and his dynasty ruled the state for 222 years. Sultan Sikander Butshika of Kashmir considered worst in Muslim Period. Firishta records that he persecuted the Hindus and issued orders prohibiting the residence of any other than Muslims in Kashmir. He also ordered the breaking of all golden and silver images.
The famous quote “Future wars will be fought over water” leaves little doubt that the world is moving towards an insurmountable water crisis and the effect will be most pronounced in developing countries including India. The crisis of adequate safe drinking-water has gained currency in the recent years and this lack of access to clean and regular drinking water is disproportionately felt by the socially, economically, geographically or demographically disadvantaged ones.
India supports over 16% of the world’s population with only 4% of the world’s freshwater. To make matters worse, more than half of the major rivers in India are highly polluted and unfit for consumption. Challenges will further intensify with rapid climate change contributing to more extreme weather shocks. Increasing population, frequent floods and droughts, delayed monsoons, and rising pollution are some of the key concerns leading to drinking water crisis. While the government has introduced multiple initiatives and awareness towards clean drinking water, the real crisis is more alarming than the reports.
On 8th November demonetization was announced with the aim of the action was
fourfold: to curb corruption; counterfeiting; the use of high denomination notes for
terrorist activities; and especially the accumulation of “black money”, generated by
income that has not been declared to the tax authorities.
Public policies are formulated and implemented in order to attain the objectives which the government has in view for the ultimate benefit of the masses in general. These policies clearly spell out the programmes of government.
But the policies and programmes faces lacunas at both the policy formulation and policy implementation.
Some of the programmes have been discussed below with complete analysis related to them.
The articles are:
The people in India differ greatly from one another in respect of language and social habits. Regionalism describes situations in which different religious or ethnic groups with distinctive identities coexist within the same state boundaries, often concentrated within a particular region and sharing strong feelings of collective identity.
Regionalism stands for the love of a particular region or an area in preference to the nation or any other region.
Thus to understand the different dimensions related to the regionalism following topics have been covered in this series:
These Articles may prove to be fruitful in writing Mains answers.
According to Administrative Reforms Commission: The district is the most convenient geographical unit where the total apparatus of public administration can be concentrated, and where it comes into direct contact with the people. Most departments of the state Government out-side the secretariat, have external services which are located in the district. The sum total of the activities of these departments and some others, which may also be connected with the affairs of the Central Government, together constitute the administrative machinery in the district.
In this series we are analyzing the working of District Administration in different dimensions as follows:
India’s vital geo-strategic location in the Indian Ocean has helped for its growth as an emerging economy. Her prominent peninsular orientation and flanking island chains overlook strategic sea lanes in the Indian Ocean, linking her security and prosperity inextricably to the seas.
But due to its strategic position it is facing many threats. The maritime security especially with respect to India has been covered in this issue under the following topics: