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NSS 78th Round Report 2020-21

  • Published
    20th Mar, 2023

The National Sample Survey Office (NSSO) carried out its 78th round of the Multiple Indicator Survey (MIS).

  • The Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) are household surveys implemented by countries under the programme developed by the United Nations Children's Fund to provide internationally comparable, statistically rigorous data on the situation of children and women.
  • The survey was conducted for all the states except for Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
  • Background:
    • The MICS was originally developed in response to the World Summit for Children (WSC) held in 1990 to measure progress towards an internationally agreed set of mid-decade goals.
  • Need of the initiative:
    • MIS was basically developed to fill existing data gaps and to inform and complement existing data collection methods and instruments (e.g. administrative records, census, vital events registration, etc.)
  • Objectives of the survey:
    • To collect information for developing estimates of some important Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) indicators.
    • To collect information Purchase/Construction of house(s)/ flat(s) by the household for residential purpose after 31 March 2021 and information on Migration.

Key Findings:

S. No.


Percentage (All India)


Percentage of persons reported to have improved source of drinking water



Percentage of persons reported access to hand washing facility with water and soap/detergent within the premises




Percentage of households using clean fuel as primary source of energy for cooking




Percentage of persons of age 15-29 years were in formal and non-formal education and training for the 12 months preceding the survey



Percentage of persons of age 18 years and above who used mobile telephone with active SIM card during the three months preceding the date of the survey



National Sample Survey Office (NSSO):

  • It is headed by a Director General who is responsible for conduct of large scale sample surveys in diverse fields on All India basis.
  • Functions:
    • Primarily data are collected through nation-wide household surveys on various socio-economic subjects like Annual Survey of Industries (ASI), etc.
    • Besides these surveys, NSSO collects data on rural and urban prices and plays a significant role in the improvement of crop statistics through supervision of the area enumeration and crop estimation surveys of the State agencies.
    • It also maintains a frame of urban area units for use in sample surveys in urban areas.
    • Later, the data obtained by the NSSO, is evaluated by CSO.

Central Statistics Office (CSO): It coordinates the statistical activities in the country and evolves statistical standards.


  • Improved governance: Survey indicates towards improved governance in the country. The policies of the government are directly reaching the citizens.
  • Improved access to basic necessity: About 95.0 percent of the persons in the rural areas and about 97.2 percent of the persons in the urban areas used ‘improved source of drinking water’.
  • Improved Infrastructure: About 92.5 percent of households in rural areas reported availability of all-weather roads within 2 km from the place of living.
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