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India concerned over ‘Monkeypox’

  • Category
    Science & Technology
  • Published
    22nd Jul, 2022

Context

Recently, the Health Ministry said that the States should aware, alert, and ready to tackle other public health threats such as monkey-pox which is on the rise globally.

Background

  • Monkey-pox (MPX) was first discovered in 1958 in colonies of monkeys kept for research, hence the name ‘monkey-pox.’
  • The first human case of monkey-pox was reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) in 1970.
  • Recently, an ongoing outbreak of the viral disease monkey-pox was confirmed in May 2022.

About

About Monkey-Pox:

  • Monkey-pox (MPX) is a viral zoonotic disease with symptoms similar to smallpox, although with less clinical severity.
  • It is a potentially serious viral illness that typically involves flu-like symptoms, swelling of the lymph nodes, and a rash that includes bumps that are initially filled with fluid before scabbing over.
  • Illness could be confused with a sexually transmitted infection like syphilis or herpes, or chickenpox.

Mode of transmission:

  • Human-to-human transmission is known to occur primarily through large respiratory droplets generally requiring prolonged close contact.
  • It can also be transmitted through direct contact with body fluids or lesion material, and indirect contact with lesion material, such as through contaminated clothing or linens of an infected person.

Case fatality ratio

  • The case fatality ratio of monkey-pox has historically ranged from 0 to 11% in the general population and has been higher among young children.
  • In recent times, the case fatality ratio has been around 3-6%.
  • Animal-to-human transmission: may occur by bite or scratch of infected animals like small mammals including rodents (rats, squirrels) and non-human primates (monkeys, apes) or through bush meat preparation.

What causes monkey-pox?

  • It is a rare disease that is caused by infection with the monkey-pox virus.
  • This virus belongs to the Ortho-pox-virus genus.
  • It includes the variola (smallpox) virus as well as the vaccinia virus, which is used in the smallpox vaccine.

What are the symptoms of monkey-pox?

  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Body aches
  • Profound weakness

What is the treatment for monkey-pox?

  • While there are no specific treatments for monkey-pox infections, antiviral drugs licensed for smallpox use are effective and can be used against monkey-pox.
  • Monkey-pox is usually a self-limited disease with symptoms lasting from 2 to 4 weeks.
  • Severe cases occur more commonly among children and are related to the extent of virus exposure, patient health status, and nature of complications.
  • The extent to which asymptomatic infection occurs is unknown.

 What is the monkey pox vaccine?

  • Two vaccines licensed by the S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) are available for preventing monkey-pox infection - JYNNEOS (also known as Imvamune or Imvanex) and ACAM2000.
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