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Human waste disposal in high altitude and low temp areas, Moving Railway coaches, Buses, Big Cities, Mines, remote areas, Beaches, Rural areas, long distance buses is a burning problem.
The problem has further aggravated in glaciers where ambient temperature drops to -40 degree C and lower. The low temp stops/ delays the natural bio-degradation of the waste leading to its preservation (accumulation) for long time resulting in environmental hazard. Local heating by direct sunlight exposes the waste buried in the ice causing nuisance and foul smell. The melting ice takes the waste to rivers disturbing the aquatic eco system. More over human waste is also responsible for spreading of water born diseases like typhoid, cholera, Shigellosis, Amebic Dysenteries, Diarrhea etc.
Bio-Digester Toilet is a decomposition mechanized toilet system by means of which the sludge(Human Waste), the fecal matter is decomposed to bits in the digester tank using a specific high graded bacteria further converting them into methane and water, discharged further to the desired surface. The Bio-digester toilet is total maintenance-free system & does not require any sewage system. The specific high graded bacteria involved in these bio-digester toilets carries on to further auto generation on their own because of their supreme quality. Bio-toilet technology is based on anaerobic biodegradation of organic waste by unique microbial consortium and works at a wide temperature range. The bacterial consortium degrades night soil at temp as low as -20 degree C and produces colorless, odorless and inflammable gas containing 50 - 70% methane.
Indian Railway and Bio toilets
• Indian RAIL has rolled out new coaches with bio-toilets, using the bio-digester concept of the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
• In phases, all conventional toilets will be replaced with bio-toilets, and the Southern Railway is looking at having only bio-toilets by 2022.
• Under the bio-toilet concept of the DRDO, the bio-digester tank in every toilet is filled with inoculums containing four types of bacteria. The water trap system in the toilet prevents air from getting into the tank, the human waste is processed by anaerobic bacteria in seven chambers in the tank and the methane gas is allowed to escape into the air.