With a population of less than 30 million, representing the largest language cohorts of mostly Arabic, English (both official) juba and Dinka speakers, South Sudan is a land locked country in Africa bordering:
• East – Ethiopia
• South-- Uganda
• South–East – Kenya
• West – The Central African Republic
• North – Republic of Sudan
• South-west – Democratic Republic of Congo
Other Sudanese speak 14 minor languages, which are further divided into roughly 100 dialects. About 50 of these dialects are spoken in the South alone.
South Sudan is incredibly complex society can broadly be divided into two regional groups:
• Agro-pastoral and pastoral communities in the northern states of greater Upper Nile and greater Bahr al-Ghazal, which have traditionally relied on cattle-raising as their main livelihoods.
• Sedentary Agricultural Communities found mainly in the Southern Equatorial states.
The large pastoral societies that make up the majority of the South-Sudanese population, including the Dinka, Nuer, Murle and Mundari are structured in a decentralized manner, consisting of many independent but interlinked clans and chiefdoms.
South Sudan as a Nation:
• The current part of South Sudan was once the part of British Empire, which became part of the Republic of Sudan when independence was achieved in 1956.
• After the first Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983.
• A second Sudanese Civil war soon developed between the Sudanese government and the Sudan People’s liberation Army led movement in southern Sudan which ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement signed in 2005.
• The agreement allowed for a referendum, by which residents of Southern Sudan voted for the independence, creating the country of South Sudan on July 9, 2011, marking the culmination of two civil wars that dates back to 1955.
• On December 15, 2013, tensions between factions loyal to President Salva Kiir, of the Dinka ethnic group, and those aligned with his former Vice President, Riek Machar, of theNuer ethnic group, exploded into fighting on the streets of Juba, the capital city. South Sudan’s dramatic return to war has torn communities apart and left countless thousands dead
• 2014: Peace agreement reached between the government and SSDM/A - Cobra Faction in January 2014. Creation of the semi-autonomous Greater Pibor Administrative Area in July 2014.
• 2015: Warring sides sign a peace deal to end the civil war but Peace agreement reached between the government and SPLM-IO on 26 August 2015 that allows Riek Machar to become the Vice President of South Sudan again.
• 2016- January 2016: SSDM/A - Cobra Faction merges with SPLM-IO-allied Greater Pibor Forces.
• Mid-February 2016: Fighting between Shilluk and Dinka youths at a United Nations peacekeeping compound in the city of Malakal, left eighteen people dead (including two MSF workers) and 30 wounded.
• Most recently, a fresh wave of violence erupted in Juba starting July 8, 2016, just one day before the country's five-year anniversary of independence. The clashes killed more than 300 people over the course of a few days and could push the young nation back into deep chaos.
• The UN Security Council took vigorous action to greatly strengthen a peacemaking force in South Sudan, the world’s youngest country but government of South Sudan shows a disliking towards the cooperation in this UN initiative, raising the possibility of clashes between the country’s armed forces and foreign soldiers deployed there by the UN.
The root causes of these conflicts can be interpreted from many different angles, including racial, religious, and post-colonial lenses, but the primary symptom of these afflictions is clear that the South was significantly underdeveloped and its people marginalized on social, political, and economic grounds compared to the North, where the various governments ruling Sudan have historically based their power.
Of the estimated 1.8 million people who remain displaced from their homes today, 1.35 million are within South Sudan and 453,600 have fled to neighboring countries. Nearly 100,000 civilians are currently sheltering on U.N. bases around the country as South Sudan. Efforts to combat famine have been successful through the end of the year, but humanitarians warn that this requires a Herculean effort. Continuing to sustain that level of response may not be possible if the violence continues.
Operation Sankat Mochan
There were about 700 Indian nationals in South Sudan. Some of them have set up businesses in Juba and others are working for various companies. A small number of Indian nationals also worked in Christian missionary organizations in South Sudan. In addition, there are 2,000 Indian Army peacekeepers, 37 Police officers and some civilian officials attached to UNMISS. Indians have been among the first to open hotels, borehole companies, printing press and departmental store in Juba. Indian nationals in Juba have formed an Indian Association, whose membership is presently around 300.
Due to the recent clashes government has started Operation Sankat Mochan. It was an operation of the Indian Air Force to evacuate Indian citizens and other foreign nationals from South Sudan during the South Sudanese Civil War.
Two C-17 Globemaster of Indian Air Force were deployed to evacuate.
Maintaining the good balance between the national security and local willingness towards peaceful structure of the country is the key issue in South Sudan which has to solve undertaking all the reformative and development aspect keeping in light.
Until the leaders of South Sudan are willing to put what is good for their people before themselves the people of South Sudan will continue to suffer from the bloodshed and instability their leaders wreak.