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National immunisation coverage for 2022

  • Category
    Science & Technology
  • Published
    21st Jul, 2023

Context

Recently, WHO and UNICEF had released its estimates for ‘National immunisation coverage for 2022’.

  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has mentioned that the coverage rate for DPT3, the third dose of diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccines, in India rose to an all-time of 93% in 2022, surpassing the previous pre-pandemic best of 91% recorded in 2019.

Highlights of the Estimates:

  • For WHO South-East Asia Region:
  • The coverage rate for DPT3 recovered to the pre-pandemic level of 91%, a sharp increase from the 82% recorded in 2021.
  • The region also witnessed a six per cent improvement in the coverage of the measles vaccine, rising to 92% in 2022 from 86% in 2021.
  • The number of zero-dose children (those that have not received even the first dose of DPT vaccine) halved to 2.3 million in 2022 from 4.6 million in 2021.
  • The report revealed that the efforts were majorly attributed being made by India and Indonesia.
  • Performance of India’s Neighbourhood:
  • Indonesia reported DPT3 coverage of 85% in 2022, the same as in 2019, but rising sharply from the 67% recorded in 2021.
  • Bhutan recorded 98% and Maldives 99%, surpassing their pre-pandemic immunisation rates.
  • Bangladesh with 98% and Thailand 97% , Sri Lanka with 98% coverage, Nepal with 90% and Timor-Leste with 86% were closer to the pre-pandemic coverage of 99%, 93% and 90%.

Significance of the report:

  • It helps to strengthen capacities of the health workforce, better understand, and engage with vulnerable populations and roll out tailored strategies to reach each child with the lifesaving routine immunization vaccines.

Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus vaccines:

  • The DPT vaccine or DTP vaccine is a class of combination vaccines against three infectious diseases in humans: diphtheria, pertussis (whooping cough), and tetanus.
  • The vaccine components include diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and either kills whole cells of the bacterium that causes pertussis or pertussis antigens.
  • Immunisation is an essential component for reducing under-five mortality: Immunisation coverage estimates are used to monitor coverage of immunisation services and to guide disease eradication and elimination efforts.
  • It is a good indicator of health system performance.

Immunisation Process:

  • DTaP is only for children younger than 7 years old. Different vaccines against tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (Tdap and Td) are available for older children, adolescents, and adults.
  • It is recommended that children receive 5 doses of DTaP, usually at the following ages:
  • 2 months
  • 4 months
  • 6 months
  • 15–18 months
  • 4–6 years
  • DTaP may be given as a stand-alone vaccine, or as part of a combination vaccine (a type of vaccine that combines more than one vaccine together into one shot).

Government Interventions:

  • Universal Immunization Programme (UIP): Vaccines under UIP: Under UIP, following vaccines are provided:
    1. BCG (Bacillus Calmette Guerin)
    2. DPT (Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus Toxoid)
    3. OPV (Oral Polio Vaccine)
    4. Measles
    5. Hepatitis B
    6. TT (Tetanus Toxoid)
    7. JE vaccination (in selected high disease burden districts)
    8. Hib containing Pentavalent vaccine (DPT+HepB+Hib) (In selected States)

Dosage Profile:


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