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World Development Report: Wave of Migration

  • Published
    20th May, 2023
Context
  • The latest World Development Report has published by the World Bank, says the world is in such a crisis that a new wave of migration among countries is needed for human survival.

Key highlights of the report:

  • Distress migration: The first migration which happened some 70,000 years ago could be called a distress migration, based on geological and paleoclimate evidence.
  • Human beings moved out from Africa, seeking food, water and a suitable climate to prosper.
  • Back then, the planet was an open geographical mass without political boundaries.

Current Status:

  • The 184 million migrants in the world are 2.3 percent of the population, with 80% of them being economic migrants.
  • Since 2014, nearly 50,000 people have died while attempting to migrate, showing the desperation of people to migrate for survival.
  • This is due to the demographic change in the world, where there is a scarcity of people who can work and have the skills to do so.
    • For Example: Italy will have its population cut in half by the end of the century. Globally, the number of people over age 65 is already larger than the number of children under age 5.
  • Middle-income countries: The population is getting older before they attain a certain income level. The share of the elderly in their population is expected to double by 2050.
  • Lower-income countries: African countries, Niger saw its population grow from 3 million in 1960 to 24 million in 2020.

Estimation by World Bank:

  • Demographic changes have caused a global competition for workers and talent, with rich countries having to open up again, middle-income countries having to compete with those brought in from outside, and poor and developing countries having to undertake massive skill-development exercises to grab the opportunity.
  • This has caused the world to seek out the suitable among its own species in a desperate way.
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