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Challenges of Security Forces guarding Indian Borders

  • Published
    15th Nov, 2022

The Indian Defence forces for border security, LOCs, and other central security forces have several challenges in guarding the common people of the country.

  • Our forces including the BSF, ITBP, SSB, and Assam Rifles lose more jawans every year than the Indian army does during peacetime.
The Central Armed Police Forces:
  • The Ministry of Home Affairs maintains seven CAPFs:
  • The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), assists in internal security and counterinsurgency.
  • The Central Industrial Security Force (CISF), protects vital installations (like airports) and public sector undertakings.
  • The National Security Guards (NSG), is a special counterterrorism force.
  • Four border guarding forces, which are the Border Security Force(BSF), Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP), SashastraSeemaBal (SSB), and Assam Rifles (AR).
Major Functions of CAPFs:
  • Border Security: Safeguard the security of the borders of India and promote a sense of security among the people living in border areas.
    • Prevent trans-border crimes, smuggling, and unauthorized entry into or exit from the territory of India and prevent any other illegal activity.
  • Industrial Security: Provide security to sensitive installations, and persons at a security risk.
  • Other Functions: Counter Insurgency Operations, Anti Naxal Operations, Internal Security Duties, VIP Protection, Lead Intelligence Agency, Security To Diplomatic Missions Abroad, United Nations(UN) Peacekeeping Operations, Disaster Management, Civic Action Nodal Agency for UN Police Missions, etc.
Major problems:
  • Unplanned expansion of the forces has made human resource management a stupendous problem.
  • The deployment statement of the CAPFs is very distressing: About 95 percent of the force remains deployed throughout the year.
  • Growing hiatus between the officers and the men: The kind of fellow feeling, the camaraderie is gradually fading.
  • Politicization: It has eroded the chain of command.
  • Code of conduct chain
  • Wastage of manpower: When a State Government is given a CAPF, they like to retain it as long as they can do so due to which other states requiring them are starved of it.
  • Promotions: In CAPF as well as in police, there are four levels of entry whereas in the army there are two levels of entry.
About Security forces:
Security force Description

Assam Rifles:

  • Assam Rifles is a Central Paramilitary Force under the Central Armed Police Forces.
  • It came into being in 1835, as a militia called the ‘Cachar Levy’, to primarily protect British Tea estates and their settlements against tribal raids.
  • Assam Rifles has two battalions stationed in Jammu and Kashmir and one National Disaster Relief Force battalion, which is playing its active role in case of natural calamities.

Indo-Tibetan Border Police (ITBP):

  • Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force (ITBPF) is a Central Armed Police Force functioning under the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
  • The ITBP was raised on 24th October 1962 during the India-China War and is a border-guarding police force specializing in high-altitude operations.
  • Presently, ITBP is deployed on border guarding duties from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh to Jachep La in Arunachal Pradesh covering 3488 km of the Indo-China Border.
  • The Force is also deployed for Anti-Naxal operations and other internal security duties.

SashastraSeemaBal (SSB):

  • SSB comes under the aegis of the Ministry of Home Affairs and is a part of the Central Armed Police Forces (CAPF).
  • It was established as Special Service Bureau in May 1963, in the aftermath of the Chinese aggression in 1962.
  • It was declared a lead intelligence agency for Indo-Nepal in June 2001 and assigned to the Indo-Nepal border. In 2004, it was also assigned the Indo-Bhutan border.
  • In 2004, SSB received the President’s Colours in recognition of its keystone role in national security, since its inception.

Border Security Force (BSF):

  • BSF is a Border Guarding Force of India. Established on December 1, 1965, it is a paramilitary force charged with guarding India's land borders with Pakistan and Bangladesh.
  • The BSF has an air wing, a marine wing, an artillery regiment, and commando units.
  • It currently stands as the world's largest border-guarding force. BSF has been termed the First Line of Defence of Indian Territories.

Short News

JanjatiyaGaurav Diwas 2022

  • It is observed on 15 November.
  • It was declared as ‘JanjatiyaGaurav Divas’ in 2021 to mark the birth anniversary of the leader BirsaMunda and remember the contribution of tribal freedom fighters.
  • The JanjatiyaGaurav Divas is celebrated every year to recognize the efforts of the tribals for the preservation of cultural heritage and promotion of Indian values of valor, hospitality, and national pride.

 Coastal defense Exercise ‘Sea Vigil-22’

  • The third edition of ‘Sea Vigil-22’ commenced on the eastern seaboard as part of the nationwide coastal defense exercise on November 15.
  • Background: This exercise was conceptualized in 2018 to validate various measures that have been instituted toward enhancing maritime security since the 26/11 Mumbai attack.
  • The exercise is a build-up towards the major Theatre Level Readiness Operational Exercise (TROPEZ), which the Indian Navy conducts every two years. 
  • Sea Vigil and TROPEZ together will cover the entire spectrum of maritime security challenges in India.
  • Exercise Sea Vigil-22 will provide a realistic assessment of our strengths and weaknesses and thus will help in further strengthening maritime and national security.
  • Initiatives taken:
    • The process of installing transponders on sub-20 meter boats commenced with a pilot project in Tamil Nadu for 5,000 vessels.
    • An Automatic Identification System (AIS) was made compulsory for all vessels above 20 meters.
    • The Vehicle Management System (VMS) has advanced features and enables two-way communication.
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