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India focusing on integrated land management system

Published: 18th May, 2023

Context

In recent years, India has taken proactive steps to digitize land records under the Digital India Land Records Modernisation Programme (DILRMP) to create an integrated land management system.

What government is doing?

  • The government revamped the existing National Land Record Modernization Programme (NLRMP) by bringing into force, the Digital India Land Records Modernization Programme (DILRMP)
    • DILRMP is a Central Scheme with 100 per cent funding.
    • The programme is slated to be fully implemented by March 2026, with completion of basic digitisation of Record of Rights (RoRs) and Cadastral Maps and integration of the the two , computerisation of Sub Registrar Offices (SROs), and integration of SROs and Revenue Offices by March 2024.

Important Components

  • Bhu-Aadhaar or the Unique Land Parcel Identification Number (ULPIN) project seeks to assign a 14-digit alpha-numeric number to land parcels in India based on the geo-coordinates of the land parcel.
  • National Generic Document Registration System (NGDRS): It is a uniform system to address the diversity prevailing across States with regards to registration of deeds/documents.
  • Records of Rights: The rights have been transliterated in all the 22 scheduled languages mentioned in the Constitution to address the problem of linguistic barriers in land governance in the country. 

Where does India lack?

  • In India, most property documents must compulsorily be registered under the Registration Act, 1908, failing which they cannot be admitted in court (in case of a dispute) as evidence.

Land registry authority

Under the Indian Constitution, land is a state subject.

  • Despite being a crucial formality for legal documentation, the registration process in India still relies on the outdated physical mode of registration.
  • In 2013, while the government sought to amend the Registration Act to allow the digitization of certain processes, these amendments were never enacted.
  • The central Act must establish minimum standards for remote online registration to ensure that registration throughout India is undertaken in a safe and secure manner.
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