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Ola unveils India’s first indigenously made lithium ion-cell

  • Category
    Science & Technology
  • Published
    22nd Jul, 2022

Context

Ola Electric recently unveiled India’s first indigenously developed lithium-ion cell, NMC 2170.

About

  • Lithium-ion refers to rechargeable (or secondary) lithium batteries.
  • Ola is building the world's most advanced cell research centre that will enable India to scale and innovate faster, and build the most advanced and affordable EV products in the world with speed.

Lithium-ion battery:

  • Lithium-ion is the most popular rechargeable battery chemistry used today.
  • Lithium-ion batteries power the devices we use every day, like our mobile phones and electric vehicles.
  • Lithium-ion batteries consist of single or multiple lithium-ion cells, along with a protective circuit board. 
  • They are referred to as batteries once the cell, or cells, are installed inside a device with the protective circuit board.

Components of a lithium-ion cell:

  • Electrodes: The positively and negatively charged ends of a cell. Attached to the current collectors
  • Anode: The negative electrode
  • Cathode: The positive electrode
  • Electrolyte: A liquid or gel that conducts electricity
  • Current collectors: Conductive foils at each electrode of the battery that are connected to the terminals of the cell. The cell terminals transmit the electric current between the battery, the device and the energy source that powers the battery
  • Separator: A porous polymeric film that separates the electrodes while enabling the exchange of lithium ions from one side to the other

How does a lithium-ion cell work?

  • In a lithium-ion battery, lithium ions (Li+) move between the cathode and anode internally.
  • Electrons move in the opposite direction in the external circuit. This migration is the reason the battery powers the device—because it creates the electrical current.
  • While the battery is discharging, the anode releases lithium ions to the cathode, generating a flow of electrons that helps to power the relevant device. 
  • When the battery is charging, the opposite occurs: lithium ions are released by the cathode and received by the anode.

 About Lithium:

  • Lithium is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
  • It is a soft, silvery-white alkali metal.
  • Under standard conditions, it is the lightest metal and the lightest solid element.
  • Lithium is highly reactive and flammable, and is stored in mineral oil.
  • It never occurs freely in nature, but only in (usually ionic) compounds, such as pegmatitic minerals, which were once the main source of lithium.
  • Due to its solubility as an ion, it is present in ocean water and is commonly obtained from brines.
  • Lithium metal is isolated electrolytically from a mixture of lithium chloride and potassium chloride.
  • Lithium is a key component used in Electric Vehicle batteries. And India, through its Rs. 18,100- crore PLI scheme is offering incentives for companies to build battery cells locally.
  • China and Hong Kong are the biggest lithium battery suppliers to India.
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