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World Malaria Report

  • Category
    Science & Technology
  • Published
    9th Dec, 2023

Context

The recently released World Malaria Report shows that the number of cases and deaths due to the mosquito-borne infection India have continued to decline.

About

Key Highlights of the Report:

  • Data shown: India saw a 30% decline in malaria cases and 34% decline in deaths in 2022 as compared to the previous year.
    • Globally there were 5 million additional malaria cases in 2022 as compared to the previous year, totalling to 249 million.
    • Of the 5 million additional cases, the highest 1 million was from Pakistan that had a flood in 2022.
    • India accounted for 4% of total malaria cases in the world.
  • Factors responsible to increase Malaria:
    • Climate Change Boosts Malaria Risks:Rising temperatures due to climate change expand areas suitable for malaria transmission, especially in the Himalayan belt.
    • Extreme Weather Impacts:Extreme weather events, like heavy rainfall, can indirectly worsen malaria by hindering healthcare access; better planning is crucial.
  • Challenges for India:
    • Vivax Malaria Predicament: Vivax malaria, constituting over 40% of cases in India, poses a challenge due to its recurring nature hiding in the liver.
    • Incomplete Treatment Issue: Treating vivax malaria requires a 14-day therapy, but many stop medication once symptoms alleviate, hindering complete recovery.
  • Recommendations:
    • To achieve the malaria elimination target of 2030, there has to be emphasis on strengthening of surveillance as well as tailoring of malaria interventions at sub-national level which should be data driven.
    • In addition updating policies and adopting new tools as per national and subnational need in line with WHO’s guidance is critical.

The Statistical data (India-specific):

  • With an estimated 33.8 lakh cases and 5,511 deaths, India saw a decline of 30 per cent in malaria incidence and 34 per cent in mortality in 2022, compared to the previous year.
  • The number of malaria cases had dropped from 243 million to 233 million globally between 2000 and 2019. However, there was an increase of 11 million cases in 2020.
  • They remained stable in 2021, before seeing another increase of 5 million in 2022 to 249 million.
  • The number of malaria deaths also remained higher than the pre-pandemic levels. There were 608,000deaths reported in 2022 as compared to 576,000 cases in 2019.

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