What's New :

History

  • Categories
    Optional

History Optional Syllabus For UPSC Mains

::PAPER I::

1. Sources

Archaeological sources :

Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments.

Literary sources:

Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.

Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2. Pre‐history and Proto‐history :

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3. Indus Valley Civilization :

Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4. Megalithic Cultures :

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Iron industry.

5. Aryans and Vedic Period :

Expansions of Aryans in India :

Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6. Period of Mahajanapadas :

Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of
Magadha and Nandas.

Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.

7. Mauryan Empire :

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.

Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.

8. Post‐Mauryan Period (Indo‐Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas) :

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9. Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10. Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11. Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya;
Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12. Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13. Early Medieval India, 750‐1200:

— Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs.

— The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”.

— Agrarian economy and urban settlements.

— Trade and commerce.

— Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order.

— Condition of women.

— Indian science and technology.

14. Cultural Traditions in India, 750‐1200:

— Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa.

— Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism.

— Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan's Rajtarangini, Alberuni's India.

— Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.

15. The Thirteenth Century:

— Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions - factors behind Ghurian success.

— Economic, Social and cultural consequences.

— Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.

— Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

16. The Fourteenth Century:

— “The Khalji Revolution”.

— Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure.

— Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.

— Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta's account.

17. Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

— Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.

— Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting,
evolution of a composite culture.

— Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce.

18. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century‐Political Developments and Economy:

— Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.

— Malwa, Bahmanids.

— The Vijayanagara Empire.

— Lodis.

— Mughal Empire, first phase : Babur, Humayun.

— The Sur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration.

— Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi Movements.

19. The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century‐ Society and culture:

— Regional cultures specificities.

— Literary traditions.

— Provincial architectural.

— Society, culture, literature and the arts in Vijayanagara Empire.

20. Akbar:

— Conquests and consolidation of empire.

— Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.

— Rajput policy.

— Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh‐i‐kul and religious policy.

— Court patronage of art and technology.

21. Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

— Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.

— The Empire and the Zamindars.

— Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.

— Nature of the Mughal State.

— Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.

— The Ahom kingdom.

— Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22. Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:

— Population Agricultural and craft production.

— Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : a trade revolution.

— Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit systems.

— Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.

— Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

23. Culture during Mughal Empire:

— Persian histories and other literature.

— Hindi and religious literatures.

— Mughal architecture.

— Mughal painting.

— Provincial architecture and painting.

— Classical music.

— Science and technology.

24. The Eighteenth Century:

— Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.

— The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.

— Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.

— The Maratha fiscal and financial system.

— Emergence of Afghan power Battle of Panipat, 1761.

— State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.

::PAPER‐II::

1. European Penetration into India:

The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict
between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2. British Expansion in India:

Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3. Early Structure of the British Raj:

The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt's India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4. Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a) Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.
(b) Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5. Social and Cultural Developments:

The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6. Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7. Indian Response to British Rule:

Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the
Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin, character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8. Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress;
Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9. Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi's popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission; the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission. 

10. Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11. Other strands in the National Movement.

The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India.

The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12. Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13. Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru's Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14. Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15. Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.

16. Enlightenment and Modern ideas:

(i) Major Ideas of Enlightenment : Kant, Rousseau.

(ii) Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies.

(iii) Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17. Origins of Modern Politics :

(i) European States System.

(ii) American Revolution and the Constitution.

(iii) French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815.

(iv) American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.

(v) British Democratic politics, 1815-1850 : Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18. Industrialization :

(i) English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society.

(ii) Industrialization in other countries : USA, Germany, Russia, Japan.

(iii) Industrialization and Globalization.

19. Nation‐State System :

(i) Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.

(ii) Nationalism : State-building in Germany and Italy.

(iii) Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.

20. Imperialism and Colonialism :

(i) South and South-East Asia.

(ii) Latin America and South Africa.

(iii) Australia.

(iv) Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21. Revolution and Counter‐Revolution :

(i) 19th Century European revolutions.

(ii) The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921.

(iii) Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.

(iv) The Chinese Revolution of 1949.

22. World Wars :

(i) 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars : Societal implications.

(ii) World War I : Causes and Consequences.

(iii) World War II : Causes and Consequences.

23. The World after World War II:

(i) Emergence of Two power blocs.

(ii) Emergence of Third World and non-alignment.

(iii) UNO and the global disputes.

24 . Liberation from Colonial Rule :

(i) Latin America-Bolivar.

(ii) Arab World-Egypt.

(iii) Africa-Apartheid to Democracy.

(iv) South-East Asia-Vietnam.

25. Decolonization and Underdevelopment :

(i) Factors constraining Development ; Latin America, Africa.

26. Unification of Europe :

(i) Post War Foundations ; NATO and European Community.

(ii) Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

(iii) European Union.

27. Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World :

(i) Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.

(ii) Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001.

(iii) End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.

X
Enquire Now