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World History (World War-2) by Shivlal Gupta

  • Category
  • Test Date
    25-09-2023 07:00 AM
  • Evaluated


  • There will be 2 questions carrying the First Question is-10 marks Write your answers in 150 words and the Second Question is-15 marks Write your answers in 250 words.
  • Any page left blank in the answer-book must be crossed out clearly.
  • Evaluated Copy will be re-uploaded on the same thread after 2 days of uploading the copy.
  • Discussion of the question and one to one answer improvement session of evaluated copies will be conducted through Google Meet with concerned faculty. You will be informed via mail or SMS for the discussion.

Question #1. While no African country directly took part in the Second World War, yet they were also subject to its devastation. Examine the impact of the Second World War on Africa. 10 marks (150 words)

Question #2. The Second World War created new economic and geopolitical realities across the world which made the continuation of colonies difficult. Discuss. 15 marks (250 words)


(Examiner will pay special attention to the candidate's grasp of his/her material, its relevance to the subject chosen, and to his/ her ability to think constructively and to present his/her ideas concisely, logically and effectively).

Model Answer

Question #1. While no African country directly took part in the Second World War, yet they were also subject to its devastation. Examine the impact of the Second World War on Africa. 10 marks (150 words)


  • Briefly give an introduction about involvement of Africa in WW-II. ( 50 words)
  • Discuss the devastating effects of the Second World War on Africa. ( 150 words)
  • Conclusion ( 50 words)


During the Second World War some 375,000 men and women from African countries served in the Allied forces. These Africans enlisted – or were conscripted by their colonial ruler, Britain – to fight the Axis countries in World War 2.  They took part in campaigns in the Middle East, North Africa and East Africa, Italy and the Far EastThey were instrumental in bringing an end to the war, which was fought across Africa, Europe and the East, yet there is not much known about their contribution. Africans participated in World War II as combatants and labourers. This war affected Africa in different ways.

The impact of the Second World War on Africa:

  • The end of colonialism: Britain and France were replaced as world powers by Russia and USA. They had an anti-colonial tradition and encouraged colonial powers to decolonize. The new super powers dominated the United Nations and put pressure on colonial powers to prepare Africans for self-government. The emergence of Russia as a world power also led to the spread of socialist and Marxist ideas especially in French colonies.
  • Post war Asia also contributed to the rapid decolonization of Africa: In World War II the Japanese overrun South-East Asia, pushing the British out of Hong Kong, Malaya, Burma. The Dutch were defeated in Indonesia. The fall of Singapore marked the worst defeat in British history. The French were defeated in Vietnam. Some Africans had fought on the side of the French in Vietnam, for example, Ben Bella, leader of Algerian revolution and Jean Bedel Bokassa, later president of Central African Republic. The defeat of the white men by yellow people encouraged black people to begin on a struggle that would mark the decolonization of Africa.
  • Self determination: The independence of India and Pakistan in1947 and Mahatma Gandhi’s strategy of achieving independence after World War II encouraged Africans to struggle for self determination. In particular, Gandhi’s method of non-violence was adopted by Kwame Nkrumah and other African nationalists. This led to the achievement of self determination of African colonies in a few years.
  • The growth of Pan-Africanism: The Pan-African movement started at the end of their 19th C to promote the interests of black people both in Africa and the Diaspora. The attack of Italy on Ethiopia in 1935 and the defeat of Italy in 1941 served to unite black people in Africa and the rest of the world against colonial rule. It encouraged the growth of black nationalism, leading to the convening of the 5th Pan-African Congress which was held at Manchester in 1945. The solution of the congress to push for the immediate end of colonialism in Africa resulted in the formation of mass political parties. As a result most African countries achieved their independence between 1960 and 1970.
  • Formation of UNO: The war also resulted in the formation of the UN which in turn affected events in Africa. In 1941 American president Franklin Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill signed the Atlantic Charter which called for self determination of all peoples. This idea was adopted by United Nations Charter of 1945 which also called for independence and improvement of livelihoods colonized peoples. The development of human rights system which began in 1948 with the signing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has led to the improvement of livelihoods in Africa through the promotion human rights, for example for children and women. In addition, the United Nations Trusteeship council put pressure on colonial powers to grant independence to African states. The formation of the UN also encouraged the growth of African nationalism which in turn led to the rapid decolonization of Africa.
  • Economic impacts: During the war the needs of European powers led to economic expansion in Africa. This led to expansion on the growth of cash crops and small scale industry, for example, the supply of groundnut oil from Senegal. There was also expansion in mining because of the need for different minerals by the European powers. In Kenya Africans were allowed to grow crops. It was previously not allowed to grow, for example tea and coffee.
  • War time industrialization led to greater expectations for Africans as Africans demanded for industrialization in their countries. There was inflation as a result of high prices for imports and low ones for exports. This affected living conditions of Africans.
  • As a result of the war, more jobs were created especially in French West Africa. This in turn caused migration of large numbers of people to cities. However as the numbers of migrants increased there was unemployment. Africans especially produce rubber and other goods. The economic hardships in turn caused discontent and led to the rise of African nationalism.
  • Increased exploitation: The post war period marked increased exploitation of Africa by the colonial powers. There was increased dependence of Africa on the western world. This was because of emphasis on the production of cash crops. Cash crops were exported a low prices as compared to imports while industrialization was discouraged. The post war period also marked increased destruction of African culture as a result of colonial education.


Hence, as the end of Second World War bought independence to the African colonies, it also came up with new challenges. The way forward is through human development, the spread of education and building of institutions through regional (Pan-African, Pan-South Asian collaboration, etc) cooperation, to help propel Africa towards the path of realising the desired effects of decolonisation.


Question #2. The Second World War created new economic and geopolitical realities across the world which made the continuation of colonies difficult. Discuss. 15 marks (250 words)


  • Briefly introduce the decolonization.(40 words)
  • Discuss the circumstances leading to the process of decolonization in post WW-II period.(170  words)
  • Conclusion ( 40 words)


Decolonization, process by which colonies become independent of the colonizing country. Decolonization was gradual and peaceful for some British colonies largely settled by expatriates but violent for others, where native rebellions were energized by nationalism. The decolonisation resulted into independence of colonies and gradually they started playing important role in the world affairs.

Circumstances leading to the process of decolonization in post WW-II period

  • Change in world power structure: European countries faced greatest devastation during the world war, their economies were shattered and militarily they had weakened. This created a situation that made continuation of colonies difficult.
  • Maturing of the nationalist movements in colonies: maturing of the nationalist sentiments in colonies ensured that nationalism had permeated into the military, police, administrative ranks. Though attempts were made by the colonial powers to regain control of colonial possessions in some instances, but this maturing of nationalism made this effort wasteful.
  • Political awakening in most of the countries about the ideas of self-determination, sovereignty, and democracy forces European colonial powers to shed their hypocrisy about these values and give freedom to colonies.
  • Emergence of India, China as two big and independent countries which created new movement for freedom of colonies. India played a very active role in establishment of NAM and propagating anti-colonial ideology.
  • Establishment of international organizations like UN, NAM: The UN had played a greater role in the decolonization of Asia and Africa which was possible by the efforts of independent colonies like India, Egypt, etc. who made decolonization the major aim of their non-alignment movement and raised their voice against the brutal process of retaining colonies by Netherlands (Indonesia), Belgium (Congo), France (Algeria and Vietnam).
  • Realization that colonialism is threat to world peace - this realization also came to many countries that military and political control of the countries was always fret with problems which results into militarization, competition and wars. Any future war on the scale of world wars was unacceptable to countries.
  • Emergence of USSR which gave active support to anti colonial movements: Russian revolution made a clarion call for the end of colonialism. USSR also supported the freedom movement of countries.
  • Cold war: establishment of USSR and starting of cold war made the western countries realize that their continuation of colonialism may force colonies into the communist and USSR fold. This made them relinquish their claims on the colonies. Where ever they continue USSR supported the nationalism movement like in Vietnam.


All these lead to the realization that all countries must be given freedom, treated on the basis of equality and humanism must be the principle of interaction among the nations. Various global organizations like Bretton Woods organization, WHO, UN and associated organizations, talks on disarmament were part of all these efforts.


Procedure of Answer Writing:

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Answer Writing, Copy Evaluation, and Marks Improvement Cycle:

Step 1 (Theme, Details & Its Topics):

  1. Every round of Answer writing initiative will be around a theme related to the Subject/Topic.
  2. Please read the theme and its description, and try to cover the topics given within the theme before writing the answer along with the sources.

Step 2 (Answer Writing):

  1. Questions will be uploaded on the portal on the scheduled date at 7:00 AM.
  2. You have to write your answers on an A4 size sheet leaving margins on both sides based on the UPSC pattern.
  3. Mention your name, email id, location, and phone number on the 1st page in the top right corner and the page number on each page.
  4. After writing the answers, Click pictures of each page of your answer sheet, merge them all in a single PDF and upload them in the upload section of the same question.
  5. Kindly submit your written answers before 7:00 PM. Only the first 100 copies will be considered for evaluation. No request for late submission or evaluation will be entertained once the 100 mark is reached.

Note: Answer sheets without the proper guidelines given above will not be accepted for evaluation.

Step 3 (Copy Evaluation): Copies will be evaluated in the next 72 hours of the test date. After evaluation, copies will be uploaded into your account. During the copy evaluation period, doubt clearing and discussion about the theme or topic of the test with respective mentors of the test will be done in the telegram group

Step 4 (Mentorship): Evaluated copies will be sent to you via mail and also uploaded into your account on the website. After that a mentorship session for the marks improvement with respective faculty will be conducted on the Google Meet, so that students can get a wider perspective of the topics. Here you can discuss your evaluated copies also with the faculty. Top 5 copies of every test will be shared in the telegram group for reference.

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Note: You have to write your answers on an A4 size sheet leaving margins on both sides based on UPSC pattern. Mention Your Name on 1st page and Page Number on each page. After writing the answer, Click pictures of each page of your answer sheet, merge them all in a single PDF and upload in the Your Answer Copy section of the same question.

Copy submission is closed now for this test.

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