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How to Cover Biodiversity Hotspots, Biodiversity Reserves And Tiger Reserves for UPSC Prelims

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    7th May, 2021

Environment and Ecology has been an important segment for UPSC Civil services Preliminary examination. Since last few years has seen inclusion of questions from Environment Section. The reason might be due to rising awareness regarding environment and conservation efforts globally. One more reason is cited behind this trend is Indian Forest Service Exam that is conducted along with UPSC Prelims Exam. Out of the total questions asked from environment a substantial number of questions are asked from Biodiversity hotspots, biosphere reserves and tiger reserves .  Students have to prepare this segment really well to tackle any unpredictable questions of the UPSC Prelims Examination. In todays article we will discuss a strategy to prepare such questions for UPSC Prelims Exam point of view.

Before discussing the strategy lets have a look at these terms and understand why these areas are important from exam point of view. Biodiversity is referred to as the variation of plant and animal species in a particular habitat. Biodiversity has an evenness and richness of species of flora and fauna . Biodiversity hotspots are those regions which has high richness of species and endemism . This term was coined by Norman Myres.

On the other hand Biosphere reserves are those protected areas where conservation of plants and animals is carried out. The biosphere reserves  also restores the traditional life of the tribals living in that vicinity.  Biosphere reserves are aimed at conservation of the biodiversity in that particular area. The Biosphere Reserves are identified by the Man and Biosphere Reserve Program to promote sustainable development. This program was initiated by UNESCO in 1971. The Man and Biosphere Reserve Program recognize such areas which have following characteristics

  • They should be  world’s most typical terrestrial and coastal ecosystems.
  • They should exhibit approaches to live and works in harmony with nature.
  • They should  demonstrate the achievement of a sustainable balance between conserving natural ecosystems and biodiversity.

There are three zones in biosphere reserves :

  • Core
  • Buffer
  • Manipulation

Tiger Reserve is  a 'Core' or 'Critical Tiger Habitat', which is to be managed as an inviolate area, and a 'Buffer' or Peripheral area immediately abutting a Core area, which may be accorded a lesser degree of habitat protection. This is the typical zonation of a Tiger Reserve.

How to Prepare :

India is famous for its rich biodiversity and has around 24.46% of the geographical area covered by forests and trees. Because of this diversity and richness of animal and plant species in India is of huge importance. Increased poaching and cutting down trees has resulted into loss of habitat for various plant and animal species. Due to this most of the animal species have reached to status of critically endangered, vulnerable and lost. Basic knowledge for Biodiversity hotspots, biosphere reserves and tiger resrves can be obtained from NCERT books an NIOS material . Apart from this daily news paper reading can give you ideas about the changes and addition of new areas. Environment related current affairs can also be read from Down To Earth website and The Hindu newspaper.

However all these things can be read from a single source that is Prelims Sampoorna Fact File On Biodiversity Hotspots, Biodiversity Reserves And Tiger Reserves . This compilation has been released by GS Score one of the best coaching for IAS Preparation in India. This compilation is aimed at giving you an edge in these areas. It has been created in a manner that all relevant information has been holistically covered, which will make your preparation and revision quick and easy.


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