Preparation of Disaster Management through Reports like “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction”
10th Jan, 2022
Loss of life and property due to the disasters have been steadily mounting throughout the world due to inadequate and inefficient technology to combat disasters, rise in population, climate change, and continuing ecological degradation. The global efforts to manage disasters have proven to be insufficient to match the frequency and magnitude of both man-made and natural disasters. In this article, GS SCORE is providing a comprehensive and exhaustive strategy to cover disaster management subject for Civil services Examination. IAS aspirants can prepare for Disaster Management from the report series of GS SCORE like United Nation’s published report, “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction”.
UPSC Mains GS Paper 3 has specifically listed a new area in the form of Disaster Management. AS there will be numerous situations in the life of a civil servant dealing with security and disaster management, the topic is of high importance. Questions from this section will not only be analytic in nature but also inquisitive about the knowledge and preparedness of the candidate in tackling critical situations.
Reports like “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction” provide a global assessment of disaster risk reduction and comprehensive review and analysis of the natural hazards that are affecting humanity at present. The GAR report can contribute in formulating the sound policy through monitoring risk patterns and trends and progress in disaster risk reduction while providing strategic policy guidance to countries and the international community.
The GAR aims to focus international attention on the issue of disaster risk and encourage political and economic support for disaster risk reduction, which makes it attractive and core areas of UPSC to ask questions.
Refer to Syllabus:
- The first step in any endeavour in life is always the most important one. As the direction of the entire journey is decided by the first one. Similarly, in the journey of civil services examination, aspirants looking to prepare any subject should refer to the syllabus before understanding the entire gamut of the subject concerned.
- To begin the preparation on right track for any examination, you must understand the UPSC syllabus first. Because the very success in the examination depends on your understanding of the demand of the examination. Syllabus of any examination is like the mirror which reflects you the demand and expectation of the examination from you.
Analysis of the Previous Year Questions Papers:
- Before understanding the types of the questions asked by UPSC related to Disaster Management, aspirants should understand the categorisation of disaster management.
- As per statistics, India as a whole is vulnerable to 30 different types of disasters that will affect the economic, social, and human development potential to such an extent that it will have long-term effects on productivity and macro-economic performance.
Disasters can be classified into the following categories:
- Water and Climate Disaster: Flood, hail storms, cloudburst, cyclones, heat waves, cold waves, droughts, hurricanes. (Read about Cyclone Disaster Management separately at the linked article.)
- Geological Disaster: Landslides, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes
- Biological Disaster: Viral epidemics, pest attacks, cattle epidemic, and locust plagues
- Industrial Disaster: Chemical and industrial accidents, mine shaft fires, oil spills,
- Nuclear Disasters: Nuclear core meltdowns, radiation poisoning
- Man-made disasters: Urban and forest fires, oil spill, the collapse of huge building structures
Event Specific(Interlinked) Question
Q. Discuss the recent measures initiated in disaster management by the Government of India departing from the earlier reactive approach.
Q. In December 2004, a tsunami brought havoc on 14 countries including India. Discuss the factors responsible for the occurrence of Tsunami and its effects on life and economy. In the light of guidelines of NDMA (2010) describe the mechanisms for preparedness to reduce the risk during such events.
How to prepare Disaster Management?
Aspirants should look to prepare any topics related to any subjects through the approach of comprehensive integrated approach. Take an example of Disaster management, aspirants should develop the questioning ability related to any topics of disaster management. Aspirants, should look for answers of different types of the questions like;
- What are the causes of Disaster Management?
- What are the impact of Disaster Management?
- What needs to be done to deal with Disaster Management?
- One of the most important thing that aspirants need to remember that; any topic related to Disaster management should not be covered from the subject specific point of view. What is required, is the approach of interlinking/interconnecting of the topics. E.g. any type of disaster management question is interlinked with internal security, Geography, Governance, Environment, Economy and Society topics mentioned in UPSC mains syllabus.
- If aspirants trying to cover Disaster Management topics through reports like, “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction” then the first priority should be to understand the basic issues associated with the concerned report published. Aspirants should look for answers like;
- Who publish the report?
- What are the parameters for the publishing of the report?
- What is the performance status of the India in the report?
- If possible, have comparison assessment related to Neighbouring countries of India.
- What needs to be done by India?
- Identify the probable natural disasters in Indian perspective – Eg: Earth Quakes, Tsunamis, Landslides, Flood, Drought, Epidemics etc.
- Focus on Human induced disasters – Eg: Nuclear Reactor explosion, Dam collapse, Gas Leakage, Oil Spill, War, Terrorism, Extremism, Communal Carnage, Cyber Breakdown etc.
- Understand the national policy on disaster management.
- Understand the structure and functions of present disaster management authorities in the country – at national, state and district levels.
- Prepare notes on various proactive and reactive steps to be followed to tackle various disaster management situations.
- Last but not least, refer to the GS SCORE Report Series like “Global Assessment Report on Disaster Risk Reduction”, which discusses Disaster Management topics entirely based on UPSC syllabus.
- Other Sources; Stick to one standard textbook for the static part and refer to a good newspaper for the dynamic content. NDMA publications and NCERT Class XI textbook (Natural Hazards & Disaster Management) are major sources for this section.