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Global Hydrogen Review 2023

  • Category
    Ecology and Environment
  • Published
    21st Oct, 2023

Context:

According to release of the Global Hydrogen Review 2023 by the International Energy Agency (IEA), despite increasing global political support, green hydrogen (Biohydrogen) constitutes less than 1 per cent of the world’s hydrogen production and usage.

  • As per the report, to align with the IEA’s Net Zero Emissions (NZE) Scenario, green hydrogen capacity must grow more than 100 times by 2030.

What is Green hydrogen?

  • Green Hydrogen is colourless, odourless, tasteless, non-toxic and highly combustible gas.
  • Hydrogen is the lightest, simplest and most abundant member of the family of chemical elements in the universe.
  • Green hydrogen is produced through electrolysis using renewable sources of energy such as solar, wind or hydel power.

Ways to extract Hydrogen:

  • In the natural environment, hydrogen is not readily available in its pure form as it forms compounds with other elements like oxygen and carbon.
  • It exists within various compounds, including water, biomass and hydrocarbons.
  • Different pathways have been developed to extract hydrogen from these compounds, and these methods are categorised into conventional and renewable technologies based on the raw materials used. 

Green hydrogen is India:

  • Under the Paris Agreement (a legally binding international treaty on climate change with the goal of limiting global warming to below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels) of 2015, India is committed to reducing its greenhouse gas emissions by 33-35% from the 2005 levels.
  • At the 2021 Conference of Parties in Glasgow, India reiterated its commitment to move from a fossil and import-dependent economy to a net-zero economy by 2070.
  • In order to become energy independent by 2047, the government stressed the need to introduce green hydrogen as an alternative fuel that can make India the global hub and a major exporter of hydrogen.
  • India has just begun to generate green hydrogen with the objective of raising non-fossil energy capacity to 500 gigawatts by 2030.
  • In April 2022, the public sector OIL, which is headquartered in eastern Assam’s Duliajan, set up India’s first 99.99% pure green hydrogen pilot plant in keeping with the goal of “making the country ready for the pilot-scale production of hydrogen and its use in various applications”.
  • The plant was set up at the petroleum exploration major’s Jorhat pump station, also in eastern Assam.
  • Powered by a 500 KW solar plant, the green hydrogen unit has an installed capacity to produce 10 kg of hydrogen per day and scale it up to 30 kg per day.

International Energy Agency (IEA)

  • The International Energy Agency is an autonomous Intergovernmental Organisation.
  • The IEA was established in 1974 by developed countries - under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) - in response to the oil embargo.
  • IEA is made up of 30 member countries and eight associate nations. Four countries are seeking accession to full membership - Chile, Colombia, Israel and Lithuania.
  • India became an Associate member of IEA in March 2017 but it was in engagement with IEA long before its association with the organization.
  • The World Energy Outlook report is released by the IEA annually.
  • Its purpose is guided by four main areas of focus:
    • Energy security
    • Economic development
    • Environmental awareness
    • Global engagement

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