India ranks slips down in Human Development Index 2021
16th Sep, 2022
India (ranked 132) has registered a decline in its score over two consecutive years in Human Development Index 2021-22.
What is Human Development Index?
- The HDI is a summary measure of human development.
- It measures the average achievement of a country in three basic dimensions of human development i.e.:
- Long and healthy life (measured by life expectancy at birth)
- Education (measured by mean years of schooling and expected years of schooling)
- A decent standard of living (measured by GNI per capita in PPP terms in US$)
- The Index is part of the Human Development Report 2021-2022 released by the United Nations Development Programme.
What does the latest report Highlighted?
- Ninety per cent of countries have registered a reduction in their Human Development Index value in 2020 or 2021.
- Drop in Life Expectancy: A large contributor to the Human Development Index’s recent decline is a global drop in life expectancy, down from 72.8 years in 2019 to 71.4 years in 2021.
- Indian Perspective:
- Human Development Index: India’s HDI value stood at 0.633 in 2021, which was lower than the world average of 0.732. In 2020, too, India recorded a decline in its HDI value (0.642) in comparison to the pre-Covid level of 2019 (0.645).
- Life expectancy: In 2021, India’s life expectancy at birth was recorded at 67.2 years.
- Schooling: Expected years of schooling at 11.9 years; mean years of schooling at 6.7 years;
- Gross National Income: The gross national income per capita stood at USD 6,590.
- Gender Inequality Index: India has been ranked 122 on the Gender Inequality Index.
Reasons for India’s declining performance
- Increasing Income Inequalities:Income inequalities amplify failings on other HDI indices of human development. Intergenerational income mobility is lower in countries with high-income inequality.
- Gender Inequality:Numbers show female per capita income in India was only 21.8% of that of males, while it was more than double at 49% in other developing countries.
- Economic downfalls: Increasing inflation and regular fluctuations in structural patterns in a country makes a situation of economic downfall, which affects the common population.
- Communal Conflicts: It has been observed in India, that regional conflicts and communalism have increased.
- Increasing uncertainty due to Natural disasters: Climate change-induced disasters in India has made the majority population for forceful migration, lack of basic amenities, and financial strain.
Impacts and Consequences
- Major Challenges: While the devastating effects of Covid-19have taken the world’s attention, other layered crises, from climate change to rising inequalities, continue to take their toll.
- Challenges Related to Children:
- Indigenous childrenin Cambodia, India, and Thailand show more malnutrition-related issues such as stunting and wasting.
- Displacements in 2020: Disasters continued to trigger most new displacements in 2020. Cyclone Amphan hit Bangladesh and India, driving the largest single displacement event in the first half of the year, triggering 3.3 million pre-emptive evacuations.