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Kunming Declaration on biodiversity conservation

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  • Published
    25th Oct, 2021


The “Kunming Declaration” was adopted by more than 100 countries at the 15th annual COP Summit of the Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD).


  • The adoption of this declaration will create the impetus for a new global environmental agreement.
  • In a previous agreement, the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020, signed in Aichi, Japan, in 2010, governments agreed on 20 goals to try to reduce biodiversity loss and protect habitats by 2020.

Kunming Declaration:

  • It requires urgent and integrated action to address biodiversity concerns in all sectors of the global economy but important issues - such as savings in poor countries and commitment to chains of friendly biodiversity supply have been left to discuss over time.
  • It is not an international agreement that is binding.
  • It calls on the parties to play their part in protecting biodiversity in decision-making and recognizing the importance of conservation in protecting human health.
  • The theme of the proclamation is Civilization: Building a Shared Future for Life on Earth.
  • In recognition of this, nations are committed to supporting the development, adoption and implementation of a post-2020 operational plan, a capacity building program for the Cartagena Protocol on biosafety.
  • The Protocol aims to protect biological diversity from the potential dangers of genetically modified organisms from modern biotechnology.
  • As the declaration states the signatory states shall ensure that the policies, programs and programs of the epidemic return contribute to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, to promote sustainable and inclusive development.

Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992

  • The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) came into force on 29 December 1993. It has three main objectives:
  • Biodiversity conservation.
  • Sustainable use of biodiversity components.
  • Equitable and equitable distribution of benefits from the use of genetic resources.
  • The Convention was unveiled on June 5, 1992 at the Rio “Earth Summit”.
  • This agreement is a legally binding agreement approved by 180 countries.
  • The CBD Secretariat is based in Montreal, Canada and operates under the auspices of the United Nations Environment Program.
  • Areas of legal responsibility are biodiversity conservation, sustainable use of natural resources and equal sharing of benefits from their sustainable use.
  • The conference came into effect in 1993. Many biological problems are being addressed, including the conservation of habitats, intellectual property rights, environmental safety and the rights of indigenous peoples.
  • It has two supplementary agreements, the Cartagena Protocol and Nagoya Protocol.
    • Cartagena Protocol:It is an international treaty governing the movements of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology from one country to another.
    • Nagoya Protocol:It deals with Access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization (ABS).

30 by 30 Target

  • The proclamation makes a reference to the target '30 by 30 'which is the main proposal discussed in COP15, which will be able to pay for 30% of land and sea land protected by 2030.
  • Apart from this, there is also a plan to halve the use of chemicals by agriculture and to stop creating waste in plastic waste.

Kunming Biodiversity Fund

  • China has also promised to invest USD 233 million in a new biodiversity conservation fund for developing countries. The fund is called China's Kunming Biodiversity Fund.
  • It is a step in the right direction. However, some countries are skeptical about the fund.
  • Some countries have called the fund a "bucket drop" as China is the world's largest polluter.
  • In addition, some wealthy country donors say a new conservation fund is not needed because the United Nations' Global Environment Facility is already helping developing countries finance green projects.


The adoption of the declaration will create momentum for a new global biodiversity pact. Putting biodiversity on a path to recovery is a defining challenge of this decade, in the context of the UN Decade of Action for Sustainable Development, the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration and the UN Decade for Ocean Science for Sustainable Development. It requires strong political momentum to develop, adopt and implement an ambitious and transformative post-2020 global biodiversity framework that promotes the three objectives of the Convention in a balanced manner.


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