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Nepal politics, past, present, and future Context (Special)

Published: 29th Dec, 2022


As witnessed in the past, Nepali politics has once again thrown a big surprise at the last minute with Prachanda walking out of the alliance with the Nepali Congress (NC) and joining hands with the rival KP Sharma Oli-led CPN-UML.

  • This political turmoil in Nepal should not become a hurdle to India-Nepal relations.


  • India and Nepal share the history of cordial relations since the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two countries.
  • The warmth between the two seems to have been lost in last few years and one of the main reason of the same is the border disputes, with respect to territories of Limpiadhura, Lipulek and Kalapani, between the two countries.
  • Also the political instability in Nepal has brought varying ideologies on the power and it affects relations with India.
  • Recently, Nepal has also started to maintain the relations with China that too made India to strategize its relations with Nepal.


Turning point in India-Nepal relationship:

  • India and Nepal experienced friendly and cordial bond with each other since the establishment of diplomatic relations between the two.
  • The prime example of the good relations that were shared by the countries of India and Nepal is the India-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship, 1950and its provisions.

The 1950 India-Nepal Treaty of Peace and Friendship, officially called as Treaty of Peace and Friendship between the Government of India and Government of Nepal, is a bilateral treaty between Nepal and India establishing a close strategic relationship between the two South Asian neighbours. The treaty was signed in Kathmandu on 31 July 1950. 

This treaty allows free movement of people and goods between the two nations and a close relationship and collaboration between the two countries on matters of defence and foreign policy.

The current state of relationship:

  • The bilateral relations between India and Nepal have hit the rock-bottom though the two are far to be termed at adversaries of each other.
  • Drop in cordiality between the two can be attributed to factors such as- blockage of 2015, territorial disputes, condition of Nepali immigrants in India, growing influence of China in Nepal

What measures are required?

  • Mutual understanding
  • Focus on resolving issues
  • Government-to-Government bonding

Developmental Projects in Nepal:

  • Since 2022, the Jaynagar-Bardibas railway started with India providing technical support.
  • In 2019, the long-awaited Motihari-Amlekhgunj oil pipeline was inaugurated. Power generation in Nepal has picked up.
  • Increasing trade and economic ties
  • Easy movement
  • Multilateral forums: The focus should also be given to more air, road, train, and waterways connectivity, apart from playing an active role in several important multilateral forums such as BBIN (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India and Nepal), BIMSTEC, NAM, and SAARC to serve their common interests.

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