A clean, healthy and sustainable environment is a ‘universal right’: UNHRC
19th Oct, 2021
The UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC) has recognized access to a clean and healthy environment as a ‘fundamental right’ in Geneva, Switzerland.
What is ‘right to clean environment’?
- The right to a clean environment was centered on the Stockholm Declaration of 1972.
- The Declaration emphasizes the "right to life, liberty and security of person, and the protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms".
- Fifty years later, the declaration has been legally recognized.
The World Health Organization estimates that 13.7 million deaths a year, or about 24.3% of the global total are due to natural disasters such as air pollution and chemical exposure.
Environmental Management in India
- Article 21 of the Constitution of India states: 'No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change his nationality.
- The Indian Parliament has enacted a number of laws to protect and improve the environment.
- Wildlife (protection) Act, 1972
- Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1974
- The forest (conservation) Act, 1989
- The air (prevention and control of pollution) Act,1981
- The Environment (protection) Act, 1986
- In addition the Constitution (forty-two amendments) of the Act, 1976 included two important provisions namely.
- Article 48-A
- Article 51A (g)
Thus, making the Constitution of India the first in the world to provide a constitutional framework for environmental protection.