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Classical Swine Fever

  • Category
    Health Issues
  • Published
    29th Apr, 2020

Amid Coronavirus outbreak, 1300 pigs died of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in Assam.

Context

Amid Coronavirus outbreak, 1300 pigs died of Classical Swine Fever (CSF) in Assam.

About

  • Classical swine fever (CSF), also known as hog cholera, is a contagious viral disease of domestic and wild swine.
  • It is caused by a virus of the genus Pestivirusof the family Flaviviridae, which is closely related to the viruses that cause bovine viral diarrhoea in cattle and border disease in sheep.
  • There is only one serotype of CSF virus (CSFV).
  • CSF is a disease listed by the OIE World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Terrestrial Animal Health Code and must be reported to the OIE (OIE Terrestrial Animal Health Code).

Transmission and spread:

  • Direct contact: The most common method of transmission is through direct contact between healthy swine and those infected with CSF virus. The virus is shed in saliva, nasal secretions, urine, and feces.
  • Contact with contaminated items: Contact with contaminated vehicles, pens, feed, or clothing may spread the disease.
  • Animals that are chronic carriers of the disease (persistently infected) may show no clinical signs of illness but may shed the virus in their feces.
  • Offspring of infected sows can become infected in the uterus, and can shed the virus for months.
  • CSF virus can survive in pork and processed pork products for months when meat is refrigerated and for years when it is frozen.
  • Pigs can become infected by eating CSF-infected pork meat or products.
  • The disease has been spread through legal and illegal transport of animals, and by feeding swill containing infective tissues to pigs.

Geographical distribution:

  • CSF is found in Central and South America, Europe, and Asia and parts of Africa. North America, Australia and New Zealand are currently free of the disease.
  • In the 1990’s large CSF outbreaks occurred in The Netherlands (1997), Germany (1993-2000), Belgium (1990, 1993, 1994) and Italy (1995, 1996, 1997).

How CSF is different from swine flu?

  • CSF is a different disease to swine flu. The virus does not affect people and there is no impact on human health.
  • Swine flu is an infection caused by a virus. It's named for a virus that pigs can get. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen.
  • In 2009 a strain of swine flu called H1N1 infected many people around the world.
  • The virus is contagious and can spread from human to human.

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