Science & Technology
8th Jan, 2020
- ISRO recently reported about four astronauts that have been identified for India's upcoming Gaganyaan mission. Gaganyaan is a crewed orbital spacecraft intended to send astronauts to space for a minimum of seven days by 2022, as part of the Indian Human Spaceflight Programme.
About the mission
- The programme will make India the fourth nation in the world to launch a Human Spaceflight Mission. So far, only the USA, Russia and China have launched human spaceflight missions.
- ISRO has developed some critical technologies like re-entry mission capability, crew escape system, crew module configuration, thermal protection system, deceleration and floatation system, sub-systems of life support system etc. required for this programme.
- GSLV Mk-III launch vehicle, which has the necessary payload capability for this mission, will be used to launch Gaganyaan.
- Two unmanned Gaganyaan missions will be undertaken prior to sending humans.
- The mission will aim to send a three-member crew to space for a period of five to seven days.
- The spacecraft will be placed in a low earth orbit of 300-400km.
- The total programme cost is expected to be less than Rs. 10,000 crores.
- With the ability to hold one oxygen cylinder, the suit will allow the astronaut to breathe in space for 60 minutes.
- The capsule will rotate around the Earth every 90 minutes, and astronauts will be able to witness sunrise and sunset.
- The three astronauts will be able to see India from space every 24 hours, while they conduct experiments on micro-gravity.
- For its return, the capsule will take 36 hours, and will land in the Arabian Sea, just off the coast of Gujarat.
- ISRO will receive assistance from the French space agency CNES, in terms of expertise various fields including space medicine, astronaut health monitoring, radiation protection and life support.
Objectives of the Mission-
- Enhancement of science and technology levels in the country
- A national project involving several institutes, academia and industry
- Improvement of industrial growth
- Inspiring youth
- Development of technology for social benefits
- Improving international collaboration
About GSLV Mk- III –
- It is a three-stage heavy-lift launch vehicle which will be used to launch Gaganyaan as it has the necessary payload capability.
- It is designed to carry 4 ton class of satellites into Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO) or about 10 tons to Low Earth Orbit (LEO).
- The powerful cryogenic stage of GSLV Mk III enables it to place heavy payloads into LEO's of 600 km altitude.
- The launcher uses two S200 solid rocket boosters to provide the huge amount of thrust required for lift off.
- Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Indian space agency, founded in 1969 to develop an independent Indian space program. Its headquarter is in Bangalore(Bengaluru).
- Launch vehicles are developed at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre in Thiruvananthapuram. Launches take place at the Satish Dhawan Space Centre on Sriharikota Island, near Chennai.
- ISRO’s first satellite, Aryabhata, was launched by the Soviet Unionon April 19, 1975.
- Rohini, the first satellite to be placed in orbitby an Indian-made launch vehicle (the Satellite Launch Vehicle 3), was launched on July 18, 1980.
- ISRO has launched several space systems, including the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system for telecommunication, television broadcasting, meteorology, and disaster warning and the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites for resource monitoring and management.
- The first INSAT was launched in 1988, and the program expanded to include geosynchronous satellites called GSAT.
Rs. 10,000-crore mission will be a turning point in India's space journey. The mission will enable ISRO to achieve higher levels of reliability in launch and satellite technology. It will help in providing employment to 15,000 people and out of them, 861 will be from Isro.