India: Health of the Nation’s States
16th Jul, 2019
- According to Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) report entitled “India: Health of the Nation’s States”, contribution of Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs) to total death in India was 61.8% in 2016, as compared to 37.9% in 1990.
- This report is a collaborative effort between the ICMR, Public Health Foundation of India, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, and experts and stakeholders from about 100 institutions across India.
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- According to the report, in Kerala, Goa and Tamil Nadu, due to epidemiological transition, fewer deaths are recorded for Communicable, maternal, neonatal and nutritional diseases, thereby raising the share of NCDs in total deaths.
- Though public health is a State subject, Central Government supplements the efforts of the State Governments. For example:
- National Programme for Prevention and Control of Cancer, Diabetes, Cardiovascular Diseases and Stroke (NPCDCS) is being implemented under the National Health Mission (NHM).
- The objectives of the programme are to promote health activities and opportunistic screening for common NCDs including cancer.
- Key components of population-based screening include community-based risk assessment, screening, referral, and follow up of all individuals of 30 years and above for common NCDs
- The initiative will help in early diagnosis and will generate awareness on risk factors of NCDs.
Steps taken by Government
- To enhance the facilities for tertiary care of cancer, the Central Government is implementing Strengthening of Tertiary Care Cancer facilities scheme to support setting up of State Cancer Institutes (SCI) and Tertiary Care Centres (TCCC) in different parts of the country.
- Oncology(the study and treatment of tumours) in its various aspects has a focus in case of new AIIMS and many upgraded institutions under PradhanMantriSwasthyaSurakshaYojana (PMSSY).
- Affordable Medicines and Reliable Implants for Treatment (AMRIT) outlets have been opened at 159 Institutions/Hospitals with an objective to make available Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases drugs and implants at discounted prices to the patients.
- Jan Aushadhi stores are set up by the Department of Pharmaceuticals to provide generic medicines at affordable prices.
- ICMR is an apex body in India for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research.
- It is one of the oldest and largest medical research bodies in the world. The ICMR is funded by the Government of India through the Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
- The council's research priorities coincide with National health priorities such as control and management of communicable diseases, fertility control, maternal and child health, control of nutritional disorders etc.
- These efforts are undertaken with a view to reduce the total burden of disease and to promote health and well-being of the population.
Non-Communicable diseases (NCDs)
- These are also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors.
- The main types of NCDs are cardiovascular diseases (like heart attacks and stroke), cancers, chronic respiratory diseases (such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma) and diabetes.
- NCDs disproportionately affect people in low- and middle-income countries where more than three quarters of global NCD deaths, 32million, occur.
- The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes NCDs as a major challenge for sustainable development.
- WHO developed a Global action plan- NCDs 2013-2020 that includes nine global targets to support countries in their national efforts.
- Risk factors for NCDs inter alia include ageing, unhealthy diet, lack of physical activity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high cholesterol and overweight
It is that process by which the pattern of mortality and disease is transformed from one of high mortality among infants and children to one of degenerative and man-made diseases (such as those attributed to smoking) affecting principally the elderly.