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Rhino reintroduction success in Assam

Published: 21st Jun, 2022

Context

The most recent census (14th Assam rhino estimation) found that Manas National Park rhinos have a longer life expectancy but require translocation help.

About

The 14th Assam Rhino estimation

  • The rhino census in Manas Park was conducted in all three ranges: Bansbari, Bhuyanpara, and Panbari, with 71 estimated blocks.
  • The park's current rhino population is believed to be 40.
  • The park's rhinos have a male-female sex ratio of 1:1.
  • The total number of calves born in the wilderness represents the availability of welfare aspects to care for rhinos in Manas National Park.
  • Methodology: Total count or Direct count method
    • A complete count is often used when a single species has to be reported in a well-defined, specified region.
    • This approach assumes a detection probability of one, implying that every animal has a 100% chance of being detected during the counting.

Limitations of this method

  • The disadvantages of this technique include undercounting since the presumption of a detecting probability of one is impractical, particularly if population closure cannot be demonstrated properly within a limited area of 10-20 square kilometers.
  • Total count necessitates considerable visibility in order to view the creatures from a distance, which is impossible with "shy, cryptic animals".
  • The level of accuracy cannot be estimated in total counts.

About Greater One-Horned Rhino

  • There are three kinds of rhinos in Asia:
    • Greater one-horned (Rhinoceros unicornis)
    • Javan
    • Sumatran
  • Every year on September 22, we celebrate World Rhino Day.
  • India, Nepal, Bhutan, Malaysia, and Indonesia, are the five countries with rhino populations.
  • They have signed ‘The New Delhi Declaration on Asian Rhinos 2019’ for the conservation and protection of the species.
  • IUCN Red list-
    • Javan and Sumatran Rhino are critically endangered
    • Greater one-horned (or Indian) rhino is vulnerable
  • CITES-
    • All three are listed under Appendix I 
  • Wildlife Protection Act, 1972-
    • The Greater one-horned rhino is included in Schedule I of the Act.

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