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Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)

  • Category
    Public Health
  • Published
    14th Jun, 2019

The World Health Organization’s latest report reveals that more than a million new cases of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are detected every day.

Context

The World Health Organization’s latest report reveals that more than a million new cases of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are detected every day.

About

Highlights of the Report

  • The study found more than 376 million new cases of the four infections in 2016. By infection, there were 127 million new cases of chlamydia, 87 million cases of gonorrhoea, 6.3 million of syphilis and 156 million of trichomoniasis.
  • Every 25th person in the world has a sexually transmitted infection.
  • More than one million new cases of curable sexually transmitted infections are diagnosed every day in the age group of 15-59.
  • The research also showed that the prevalence of chlamydia, gonorrhoea and trichomoniasis increased more in women than men.
  • Approximately 13.5 per cent (50.8 million) of these infections occurred in low-income countries, 31.4 per cent (118.1 million) in lower middle-income countries, 47.1 per cent (177.3million) in upper middle-income countries and 8 per cent (30.1 million) in high-income nations, according to the report.
  • Chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoeaare bacterial infections spread through vaginal, anal or oral sex. And trichomoniasis is caused by a parasite called Trichomonasvaginalis.
  • Like Chlamydia, syphilis and gonorrhoea, trichomoniasis also spreads through sexual contacts. Both males and females are susceptible to all these four infections.

Chlamydia:

  • It is one of the most common sexually transmitted disease. This infection is easily spread because it often causes no symptoms and may be unknowingly passed to sexual partners.
  • It is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis bacterium and is most commonly spread through vaginal, oral and anal sex.
  • It's also possible for a mother to spread chlamydia to her child during delivery, causing pneumonia or a serious eye infection in her new-born.

Gonorrhoea:

  • This Sexually Transmitted Disease comes from a bacterium called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. One can get this bacterium just from touching an infected area on another person.
  • Women who have gonorrhea can pass the disease on to their baby during a vaginal delivery.

Syphilis:

  • Syphilis is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum.
  • Symptoms: Syphilis infection occurs in three distinct stages:
    • Primary stage: People with primary syphilis will develop one or more sores. The sores are usually small painless ulcers.
    • Secondary Stage: People with secondary syphilis experience a rosy "copper penny" rash typically on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet.
    • Tertiary Stage: This stage is characterized by severe problems with the heart, brain, and nerves that can result in paralysis, blindness, dementia, deafness, impotence, and even death if it's not treated.

Trichomoniasis (trich):

  • It is caused by a tiny, one-celled parasite called Trichomonas vaginalis.
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